Organ Problem Classification Nature Tumuor Ailment
CERVIX Female Genital Tract and Breast Squamous tumours and precursors MALIGNANT keratinising squmaous cell carcinoma
Cancer Incidence Highly differentiated keratinizing squamous cell cancer of the cervix are rare.
Cancer Prevalance NA
Cancer Genetic Tp 53, c erb, c myc Tp 53, c erb, c myc
Cancer Cytopathological Finding Malignant squamous cells with evidence of keratin formation.
Cancer Histopathological Finding These tumours contain keratin pearls composed of circular whorls of squamous cells with central nests of keratin. Intercellular bridges, keratohyaline granules and cytoplasmic keratinization are usually observed. The nuclei are usually large and hyperchromatic with coarse chromatin.
Cytopathology Image

Lot of Keratinisation seen

Cancer Tumuor Makers Na

Immunihisto Chemistry Keratin

Cancer Chemotherapy

 STAGEIB AND ABOVE Most standard regimens use a platinum compound (such as cisplatin or carboplatin) along with another drug such as paclitaxel (Taxol), gemcitabine (Gemzar), or topotecan. The targeted drug bevacizumab (Avastin) may be added to chemo.

 The most common chemotherapy combinations used to treat cervical cancer are:

  • carboplatin (Paraplatin) and docetaxel (Taxotere)
  • carboplatin and paclitaxel (Taxol)
  • cisplatin and etoposide(Vepesid, VP-16)
    • used to treat small cell carcinoma of the cervix

 

 

If cervical cancer does not respond to drugs used in earlier treatments or if it recurs, other drugs that may be used are:

  • paclitaxel
  • topotecan (Hycamtin)
  • gemcitabine (Gemzar)

 

 

The most common drug combinations used to treat recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer are:

  • cisplatin and topotecan
  • carboplatin and paclitaxel
  • paclitaxel and cisplatin
  • cisplatin and gemcitabine

 

 

 The most common chemotherapy combinations used to treat cervical cancer are:

  • carboplatin (Paraplatin) and docetaxel (Taxotere)
  • carboplatin and paclitaxel (Taxol)
  • cisplatin and etoposide(Vepesid, VP-16)
    • used to treat small cell carcinoma of the cervix

 

 

If cervical cancer does not respond to drugs used in earlier treatments or if it recurs, other drugs that may be used are:

  • paclitaxel
  • topotecan (Hycamtin)
  • gemcitabine (Gemzar)

 

 

The most common drug combinations used to treat recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer are:

  • cisplatin and topotecan
  • carboplatin and paclitaxel
  • paclitaxel and cisplatin
  • cisplatin and gemcitabine

 

 

Cancer Radiotherapy

  pelvic radiotherapy to a dose of 50 Gy/25 fraction/5 weeks by four field 

box technique followed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy (3 sessions, each of 7.5 Gy to point A).

Cancer Definitive Medicine The most common chemotherapy combinations used to treat cervical cancer are: carboplatin (Paraplatin) and docetaxel (Taxotere) carboplatin and paclitaxel (Taxol) cisplatin and etoposide(Vepesid, VP-16) used to treat small cell carcinoma of the cervix If cervical cancer does not respond to drugs used in earlier treatments or if it recurs, other drugs that may be used are: paclitaxel topotecan (Hycamtin) gemcitabine (Gemzar) The most common drug combinations used to treat recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer are: cisplatin and topotecan carboplatin and paclitaxel paclitaxel and cisplatin cisplatin and gemcitabine

Cancer Diet Low fat, high calorie, high protein diet with lot of vegetables & fruits get vaccinated AVOIDED - Smoking, overweight, long –term use of oral contraceptives.
Cancer Stages Master

STAGEI-STAGEIV

 FIGO/UICC staging – cervical cancer

FIGO/UICC stage

TNM

Explanation

stage 0*

Tis

N0

M0

Cells are abnormal but are found only in the surface layer of cells lining the cervix and have not spread into the deeper tissues of the cervix (carcinoma in situ, or CIS).

stage IA

T1a

N0

M0

Tumour is in the cervix (extension to the body of the uterus is disregarded) but is considered invasive because cancer cells have entered the stromal tissue (the supporting connective tissue layer of the cervix). Tumour is not more than 5 mm deep and is 7 mm or less in width.

Cancer cells can only be diagnosed with a microscope.

stage IA1

T1a1

N0

M0

Tumour has invaded the stroma but is not greater than 3 mm deep and is 7 mm or less in width.

stage IA2

T1a2

N0

M0

Tumour has invaded the stroma and is more than 3 mm but not more than 5 mm deep and is 7 mm or less in width.

stage IB

T1b

N0

M0

Tumour is in the cervix but is considered invasive because cancer cells have entered the stromal tissue.

Tumour can be seen on the cervix without a microscope (clinically visible) or can only be seen with a microscope but is larger than T1a2 tumours.

stage IB1

T1b1

N0

M0

Tumour is visible and is 4 cm or less in size.

stage IB2

T1b2

N0

M0

Tumour is visible and is more than 4 cm in size.

stage IIA

T2a

N0

M0

Tumour has spread beyond the uterus but not to the pelvic wall, the lower third of the vagina or the parametrial tissue (the loose connective tissue around the cervix and uterus)

stage IIA1

T2a1

N0

M0

Tumour is visible and is 4 cm or less in size.

stage IIA2

T2a2

N0

M0

Tumour is visible and is more than 4 cm in size.

stage IIB

T2b

N0

M0

Tumour has spread beyond the uterus to the parametrial tissue but not to the pelvic wall or the lower third of the vagina.

stage IIIA

T3a

N0

M0

Tumour has spread to the lower third of the vagina but not to the pelvic wall.

stage IIIB

T1– T3

N1

M0

Tumour may:

  • be confined to the cervix (T1)
  • have spread beyond the uterus but not to the pelvic wall or the lower third of the vagina (T2)
  • be in the pelvic wall or lower third of the vagina or blocks a ureter, which causes an enlarged kidney (hydronephrosis) or stops the kidney from working (non-functioning kidney) (T3)

 

 

Cancer has spread to the lymph nodes.

T3b

any N

M0

Tumour has spread to the pelvic wall or blocks the ureter, which causes an enlarged kidney (hydronephrosis) or the kidney to stop working (non-functioning kidney).

Cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes.

stage IVA

T4

any N

M0

Tumour has spread to adjacent organs (the mucosa of the bladder or rectum or has spread beyond the pelvis).

Cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes.

stage IVB

Cancer has spread to distant organs.

Cancer may have spread to the lymph nodes.

*FIGO no longer includes stage 0 (Tis)

Cancer Prognosis

 For stage 1B1 cancers the cure rate is between 90 to 95%

 stages 2A and 2B. For all those women diagnosed with stage 2A cervical cancer, between 7 and 9 out of 10 (70 to 90%) 

Stage 3 means the cancer has spread to the lower vagina or the side of the pelvis. Between 3 and 5 out of 10 women (30 to 50%)

Stage 4 means the cancer has spread to distant organs or into the bladder or bowel.

20 out of 100 women (20%) 

Cancer Reference