Organ Problem Classification Nature Tumuor Ailment
PROSTATE Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organ Epithelial tumours non invasive Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, grade III (PIN III)
Cancer Incidence The incidence of PIN in prostate biopsies averages 9% (range, 4%16%), representing 115,000 new cases of PIN diagnosed each year in United States. The incidence of PIN in prostate biopsies averages 9% (range, 4%16%), representing 115,000 new cases of PIN diagnosed each year in United States.
Cancer Prevalance Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer among men in the United States, accounting for more than 200,000 new cases annually Prostate cancer remains the most common cancer among men in the United States, accounting for more than 200,000 new cases annually
Clinical Features Frequency Urgency Nocturia Difficulty in micturition
Cancer Histopathological Finding PIN was divided into three grades based on architectural and cytologic features recognizing that the changes cover a continuum. Subsequently, it has been recommended that the classification should be simplified into a two-tier system: low (previous grade I) and high (previous grades II and III) grade lesions {638}. The distinction between low and high grade PIN is based on the degree of architectural complexity and more importantly, on the extent of cytologic abnormalities. In low grade PIN, there is proliferation and "piling up" of secretory cells of the lining epithelium with irregular spacing. Some nuclei have small, usually inconspicuous nucleoli while a few may contain more prominent nucleoli. The basal cell layer normally rimming ducts and acini is intact in low grade PIN. It is difficult to reproducibly distinguish low grade PIN from normal and hyperplastic epithelium {709}. High grade PIN is characterized by a more uniform morphologic alteration. Cytologically, the acini and ducts are lined by malignant cells with a variety of architectural complexity and patterns. The individual cells are almost uniformly enlarged with increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, therefore showing less variation in nuclear size than that seen in low grade PIN. Many cells of HGPIN contain prominent nucleoli and most show coarse clumping of the chromatin that is often present along the nuclear membrane. HGPIN can be readily appreciated at low power microscopic examination by virtue of the darker "blue" staining of the lining that reflects the expanded nuclear chromatin area. PIN was divided into three grades based on architectural and cytologic features recognizing that the changes cover a continuum. Subsequently, it has been recommended that the classification should be simplified into a two-tier system: low (previous grade I) and high (previous grades II and III) grade lesions {638}. The distinction between low and high grade PIN is based on the degree of architectural complexity and more importantly, on the extent of cytologic abnormalities. In low grade PIN, there is proliferation and "piling up" of secretory cells of the lining epithelium with irregular spacing. Some nuclei have small, usually inconspicuous nucleoli while a few may contain more prominent nucleoli. The basal cell layer normally rimming ducts and acini is intact in low grade PIN. It is difficult to reproducibly distinguish low grade PIN from normal and hyperplastic epithelium {709}. High grade PIN is characterized by a more uniform morphologic alteration. Cytologically, the acini and ducts are lined by malignant cells with a variety of architectural complexity and patterns. The individual cells are almost niformly enlarged with increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, therefore showing less variation in nuclear size than that seen in low grade PIN. Many cells of HGPIN contain prominent nucleoli and most show coarse clumping of the chromatin that is often present along the nuclear membrane. HGPIN can be readily appreciated at low power microscopic examination by virtue of the darker "blue" staining of the lining that reflects the expanded nuclear chromatin area.
Immunihisto Chemistry Not helpful

Microscopy Image

High grade PIN. Expanded duct with micropapillary proliferation of enlarged secretory epithelial cells with high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio and enlarged nucleoli.

Cancer Radiotherapy

 N A

Cancer Diet High calorie, high protein calamint supplement diet
Cancer Reference Google search Google search