Bosentan is a Medicine belongs to Cardiovascular drugs group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1359   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : Tracleer

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 62.5  Mg, Tablet with 125  Mg,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 225   Edition : 12,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1360   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Systemic sclerosis with ongoing digital ulcer disease Oral 62.5 mg Tablet b.d. For patients over 12 years of age; than it is increased after 4 weeks to a maintenance dose of 125 mg twice daily.
2 Pulmonary hypertension Oral 62.5 mg Tablet b.d. For patients over 12 years of age; than it is increased after 4 weeks to a maintenance dose of 125 mg twice daily.
3 Pulmonary hypertension Oral 62.5 mg Tablet b.d. For patients over 12 years of age with body weight below 40 kg. This is the initial and as well as maintenance dose.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1327   Edition : 38,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Pulmonary hypertension 2 Year 18 Year 10-20 kg Oral 31.25 mg o.d.
2 Pulmonary hypertension 2 Year 18 Year 20-40 kg Oral 31.25 mg b.d.
3 Pulmonary hypertension 12 Year 18 Year over 40 kg Oral

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1327   Edition : 38,
►  Side Effect : headache, nasopharyngitis, flushing, hypotension, Dizziness, palpitations, gastrointestinal disturbance, pruritus, fatigue, muscle cramp, anaemias, Hepatic cirrhosis, Skin rashes, liver damage, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1360   Edition : 37,    Page :    Edition : ,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Bosentan is with , Hormonal Contraceptives,  Cyclosporine , Glibenclamide ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1360   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Bosentan is metabolised by the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 and is also an inducer of the same isoenzymes. It may also possibly induce CYP2C19. Interactions may therefore occur with other drugs that are either metabolised by, or inhibit, these isoenzymes. Use with ciclosporin is contra-indicated since plasma concentrations of bosentan are significantly increased. There is an increased risk of hepatotoxicity if bosentan is given with glibenclamide and such use should be avoided; the hypoglycaemic effect of glibenclamide may also be reduced. Bosentan has reduced the plasma concentrations of some hormonal contraceptives and additional contraceptive measures are advised,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1360   Edition : 37,


►  Contraindication : hypotension, moderate to severe hepatic impairment, pregnancy, women of child-bearing potential who are not using a reliable method of contraception,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1327,1328   Edition : 38,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Endothelin receptor antagonists act by blocking the effects of endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor. Bosentan blocks both the endothelin ETA and ETB receptors.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1245   Edition : 38,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Garlic with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Allicin & Alliin have Anti-hypertensive activity. --- (PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.travolekar.ru/arch/Pdr_for_Herbal_Medicines.pdf,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA



    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Biliary, Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1360   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :
      Min value :-   5 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1360   Edition : 37,

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   3 hours,    Max value :-   5 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1360   Edition : 37,