Cyclosporine is a Medicine belongs to Immunosuppressants group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1957   Edition : 38,

  ►   Brandname : Imusporin,Panimun Bioral,Sandimmun,Neoral,Gengraf,Neoral,Restasis; Capsorin

  ►  Strength : Capsule with 25  mg, Capsule with 100  mg, Solution with 100  mg/ml, Injection with 50  mg/ml, Eye Drop with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 999   Edition : 12, Martindale    Page : 1957   Edition : 38,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IV, Topical,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1957   Edition : 38,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Organ transplantation Oral 10 mg/kg 15 mg/kg Capsule Beginning 4 to 12 hours before transplantation and continued for 1 to 2 weeks.
2 Bone marrow transplantation IV 3 mg/kg 5 mg/kg Injection Daily, and also in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease
3 Bone marrow transplantation Oral 12.5 mg/kg 15 mg/kg Capsule Daily followed by 12.5 mg/kg daily for maintenance and also used in graft-versus-host disease.
4 Psoriasis Oral 2.5 mg/kg Capsule A maximum of 5 mg/kg daily is recommended in the UK and 4 mg/kg daily in the USA. Daily in 2 divided doses.
5 Atopic dermatitis Oral 2.5 mg/kg Capsule For a maximum of 8 weeks.
6 Rheumatoid arthiritis Oral 2.5 mg/kg Capsule Divided into two doses for a period of 6 or 8 weeks.
7 Nephrotic syndrome Oral 5 mg/kg Capsule Daily in 2 divided doses.
8 Dry eye Topical Eye Drop Associated with ocular inflammation, ciclosporin 0.05%

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1945   Edition : 38, Martindale    Page : 1946   Edition : 38,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Nephrotic syndrome Oral 6 mg/kg Capsule
2 Ulcerative colitis 2 Year 18 Year Oral 2 mg/kg Capsule b.d.
3 Ulcerative colitis 3 Year 18 Year IV infusion 0.5 1 mg/kg Injection b.d.
4 Psoriasis From 1 Month Oral 2.5 mg/kg Capsule
5 Atopic dermatitis From 1 Month Oral 2.5 mg/kg Capsule

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1946   Edition : 38,
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Cyclosporine' drug in  Generalized, Tonic-Clonic Seizures  disease, then Please Not to be given .

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Cyclosporine' drug in  MYASTHENIA GRAVIS  disease, then Please Use with caution .

►  Side Effect : hypertension, gastrointestinal disturbance, fatigue, hepatotoxicity, hypertrichosis, gum hyperplasia, tremor, headache, hyperlipidaemia, hyperkalaemia, hypomagnesaemia, hyperuricaemia, paraesthesia, muscle cramp, myalgia, encephalopathy, convulsion, Confusion, visual disturbances, blindness, movement disorders, Psychiatric disturbances, anaemias, thrombocytopenia, Rashes, weight gain, oedema, Pancreatitis, myopathy, neuropathy, Hyperglycaemia, Nephrotoxicity, manifesting as raised serum creatinine and urea, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1949   Edition : 38, Martindale    Page : 1948   Edition : 38,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Cyclosporine is with , Antifungal , Macrolide antibacterials, Hiv Protease Inhibitors, Non Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Calcium Channel Blockers , sex hormone , Corticosteroid , , Statins, Potassium -Sparing Diuretics , ,  Carbamazapine , Nevirapine, Phenytoin , Phenobarbital , Rifampicin , Amlodipine , Nifedipine ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1951   Edition : 38,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Cyclosporin is extensively metabolised in the liver and plasma-ciclosporin concentrations may be affected by inducers or competitive inhibitors of hepatic enzymes, particularly cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4. For example, use of carbamazepine, nevirapine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, rifampicin, St John’s wort, and other inducers of hepatic enzymes may lead to lower plasma concentrations of cyclosporin, and increased plasma concentrations have been reported with some antifungals, macrolide antibacterials, HIV-protease inhibitors, the NNRTI delavirdine, some calcium- channel blockers, sex hormones, corticosteroids and grapefruit juice. Concurrent use of statins may increase the risk of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Potassium-sparing diuretics should be avoided because of the risk of hyperkalaemia, and patients taking cyclosporin should avoid a high dietary intake of potassium. The risk of gingival hyperplasia may be increased by amlodipine or nifedipine.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1951   Edition : 38,


►  Contraindication : renal impairment, Uncontrolled hypertension, Porphyria, uncontrolled infections, malignancy, excessive sun exposure, Intra-uterine contraceptive devices, vaccines, Live vaccines, In patients with persistenly raised creatinine,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1951   Edition : 38,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Cyclosporin is a powerful immunosuppressant that appears to act specifically on lymphocytes, mainly helper T-cells. It forms a complex with the receptor protein cyclophilin; this complex binds to and inhibits the activation of calcineurin, an important step in the production of lymphokines, including interleukin-2, and results in a depression of cell-mediated immune response. ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1945   Edition : 38,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Ashwagandha with Another pathway, Tulsi with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Withaline have immunostimulant effect --- (Kokate, C.K. and A.p. Purohit. Pharmacognosy. Nirali prakashan: Chennai, 2013. Print. )
  • Antibiotic effect . --- (Kayastha, Babita Labh. "Queen Of Herbs Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum) Removes Impurities From Water And Plays Disinfectant Role". Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 2.2 (2014): 1-8. Print. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://freepharmadownloads.blogspot.com/2013/02/pharmacognosy-ckkokate-free-download.html, http://www.plantsjournal.com/vol2Issue2/Issue_feb_2014/1.3.pdf,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- MAGNESIUM with Decrease in Nutrient Level,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- POTASSIUM with Cyclosporine can cause excess retention of potassium ,potentially leading to dangerous levels of the mineral in the blood ( hyperkalemia ) . , GINKGO BILOBA with Ginkgo was reported to protect liver cells from damage caused by cyclosporine ., GRAPE FRUIT JUICE with Grapefruit juice increase drug level in blood compared with water ., RED WINE with It has been found to reduce blood levels of the drug .,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Fecal, Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal, Biliary,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1955   Edition : 38,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   5 hours,    Max value :-   20 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1955   Edition : 38,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   1.5 hours,    Max value :-   2 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1955   Edition : 38,