Diazepam is a Medicine belongs to Sedatives- hypnotics group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1098   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : Valium,Diastat,Diazemuls,Calmpose,Rimapam,Anxol,Elcion,Paxum,Placidox,Rec-DZ,Valium,Zepose

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 2  mg, Tablet with 5  mg, Tablet with 10  mg, Solution with 1  mg/ml, Solution with 5  mg/ml, Injection with 5  mg/ml, Gel with 2.5  mg, Suppository with 10  mg, Suppository with 30  mg, Gel with 5  mg, Gel with 10  mg, Rectal solution with 2.5  mg, Rectal solution with 5  mg, Rectal solution with 10  mg, Rectal solution with 15  mg, Rectal solution with 20  mg, Solution with 5  mg/5mL, Capsule with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 387, 400, 427, 446   Edition : 12, Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 387   Edition : 12, Martindale    Page : 1096-1098   Edition : 37, Martindale    Page : 1096, 1098   Edition : 37, Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 481   Edition : 12, Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : test   Edition : 12,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IV, IM, rectal,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1096   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Severe anxiety Oral 2 mg Tablet t.i.d. Dose: maximum of 30 mg daily
2 Severe anxiety rectal 500 microgram/kg Rectal solution Dose: repeated after 12 hours if necessary
3 Severe anxiety rectal 10 30 mg Suppository
4 Severe anxiety i.m or i.v 10 mg Injection Dose: repeated if necessary after 4 hour
5 Insomnia Oral 5 15 mg Dose: Given at bedtime
6 Premedication before general anaesthesia or to provide sedative cover for minor surgical or investigative procedures Oral 5 20 mg
7 Premedication before general anaesthesia or to provide sedative cover for minor surgical or investigative procedures IV 100 200 micrograms/kg Injection Dose: usual dose 100 to 200 mcg/kg or 10 to 20 mg
8 Premedication before general anaesthesia or to provide sedative cover for minor surgical or investigative procedures rectal 500 micrograms/kg Rectal solution
9 Seizures Oral 2 60 mg Dose: Given daily in divided doses also given orally as an adjunct in some types of epilepsy
10 Seizures rectal 200 mcg/kg Rectal gel Dose: Management of episode of increased seizure activity in patients with refractory epilepsy: Repeated after 4 to 12 hours if necessary. No more than 5 episods a month and no more than 1 episode every 5 days should be treated with this formulation.
11 Seizures IV 150 250 mcg/kg Injection Dose: (usually 10 to 20 mg), repeated after 30 to 60 minutes. Dose repeated after 10 minutes if necessary. Once the seizures have been controlled, a slow intravenous infusion providing up to 3 mg/kg over 24 hours has been used to protect against recurrence.
12 Muscle spasm Oral 2 15 mg Dose: The dose may be increased in severe spastic disorders, such as cerebral palsy, to up to 60 mg daily in adults.
13 Muscle spasm IM or Slow IV 10 mg Injection Dose: repeated if necessary after 4 hours.
14 Tetanus IV 100 300 mcg/kg Injection Dose: Given every 1 to 4 hours. Alternatively 3 to 10 mg/kg may be given over 24 hours by continuous intravenous infusion or by nasoduodenal tube using a suitable liquid oral dosage form.
15 Tetanus rectal 500 mcg/kg Rectal solution Dose: repeated every 12 hours if necessary.
16 Alcohol withdrawal syndrome Oral 5 20 mg Dose: repeated if necessary after 2 to 4 hour.
17 Alcohol withdrawal syndrome IM or IV 10 20 mg Injection Dose: If the symptoms are severe and if delirium tremens has developed: repeared after 4 hours if necessary.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1096, 1097   Edition : 37, Martindale    Page : 1096-1097   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Pre medication before general anesthesia or for sedation during minor surgical or investigative procedures 1 Month 18 Year Oral 200 300 micrograms/kg
2 Pre medication before general anesthesia or for sedation during minor surgical or investigative procedures 1 Month 18 Year IV 100 200 mcg/kg Injection
3 Premedication before general anaesthesia or to provide sedative cover for minor surgical or investigative procedures 1 Year 3 Year rectal 5 mg Rectal solution
4 Premedication before general anaesthesia or to provide sedative cover for minor surgical or investigative procedures 3 Year 12 Year rectal 5 10 mg Rectal solution
5 Premedication before general anaesthesia or to provide sedative cover for minor surgical or investigative procedures 12 Year 18 Year rectal 10 mg Rectal solution
6 Seizures 2 Year 5 Year 500 micrograms/kg
7 Seizures 6 Year 11 Year 300 micrograms/kg
8 Seizures 12Year 200 micrograms/kg
9 Febrile convulsion, status epilepticus, convulsions due to poisoining rectal 1.25 2.5 mg Rectal solution
10 Febrile convulsion, status epilepticus, convulsions due to poisoining 1 Month 2Year rectal 5 mg Rectal solution
11 Febrile convulsion, status epilepticus, convulsions due to poisoining 2Year 12Year rectal 10 20 mg Rectal solution
12 Febrile convulsion, status epilepticus, convulsions due to poisoining 12Year 18Year rectal 1 mg Rectal solution
13 Febrile convulsion, status epilepticus, convulsions due to poisoining IV 300 400 mcg/kg Injection
14 Febrile convulsion, status epilepticus, convulsions due to poisoining 12 Year 18 Year IV 10 20 mg Injection
15 Alleviate muscle spasm of various aetiologies Oral 20 40 mg
16 Muscle spasm in cerebral spasticity or postoperative skeletal muscle spasm 1 Month 12 Month Oral 250 mcg/kg b.d.
17 Muscle spasm in cerebral spasticity or postoperative skeletal muscle spasm 1 Year 5 Year Oral 2.5 mg b.d.
18 Muscle spasm in cerebral spasticity or postoperative skeletal muscle spasm 5 Year 12 Year Oral 5 mg b.d.
19 Muscle spasm in cerebral spasticity or postoperative skeletal muscle spasm 12 Year 18 Year Oral 10 mg b.d.
20 Muscle spasm in tetanus 1 Month 18 Year IV 100 300 mcg/kg Injection
21 Muscle spasm in tetanus 1 Year rectal 500 mcg/kg Rectal solution

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1097   Edition : 37,
►  Side Effect : drowsiness, Sedation, muscle weakness, ataxia, vertigo, headache, Confusion, Depression, slurred speech, dysarthria, changes in libido, tremor, visual disturbances, urinary retention, urinary incontinence, gastrointestinal disturbance, changes in salivation, amnesia, paradoxical excitation, raised liver enzyme values, respiratory depression, hypotension, pain at the injection site, thrombophlebitis at the site of injection, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1090   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Diazepam is with , Alcohol, antidepressants, Antipsychotic , General anaesthetics , Sedative antihistamines, opioid analgesics,  NA

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Enhanced sedation or respiratory and cardiovascular depression may occur if diazepam or other benzodiazepines are given with other drugs that have CNS depressant properties; these include alcohol, antidepressants, sedative antihistamines, antipsychotics, general anaesthetics, other hypnotics or sedatives, and opioid analgesics. The metabolism of most banzodiazipines is mediated primarily by the cytochrome P450 system, particularly the isoenzymes CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Hence, adverse effects may also be produce by use with drugs that inhibit or induce or metabolized by these isoenzymes. Benzodiazepines such as diazepam that are metabolised primarily by hepatic microsomal oxidation may be more susceptible to pharmacokinetic changes than those eliminated primarily by glucuronide conjugation. ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1093   Edition : 37,


►  Contraindication : hepatic impairment, Myasthenia gravis, pre-existing CNS depression or coma, respiratory depression, acute pulmonary insufficiency, renal impairment, sleep apnoea, chronic pulmonary insufficiency, Diazepam is not appropriate for the treatment of chronic psychosis or for phobic or obsessional states, Caution is required in patients with organic brain changes particularly arteriosclerosis,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1092   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Weak allosteric agonists of the GABAA receptor that act to increase the frequency of receptor opening and potentiate effects of GABA,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 183   Edition : 3,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Valerian with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Valeremic acid have Sedative property. --- (Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://freepharmadownloads.blogspot.com/2013/02/pharmacognosy-ckkokate-free-download.html,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- with Long -term anticonvulsant treatment decrease blood levels of biotin ., CALCIUM with Long-term develop below normal blood levels of calcium , which may be related to drug -induced vitamin -D deficiency. ., FOLIC ACID with Reduces blood levels of folic acid dramatically increases homocysteine levels ., VITAMIN A with Long-term lowered blood level of vitamin A ., VITAMIN A with Decrease in Nutrient Level, ANGELICA SINENSIS I.E.DONG GUI with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Williamson, E. (2009). Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interaction .. London: Pharmacutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf, http://www.otto-wipfel.co.uk/otto/supplements-medication/DRUG-HERB-VITAMINS-INTERACTIONS-A-Z_Guide.pdf, https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- with 5-HTP cause excessive drawsiness when taken with muscle relaxcent ., with Puerarin reduce the effect of diazepam ,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand.
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1096   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   Rectal: 10,    Max value :-   30 minutes,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1095   Edition : 37,