Diclofenac is a Medicine belongs to Non Sterodial Anti- Inflammatory Drugs group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 49   Edition : 37,    Page :   Edition : ,

  ►   Brandname : Cofenac,Diclomol,Diclonac,Acoflam,Arthrotec,Cataflam,Flector,Dynapar

  ►  Strength : Delayed- release tablets with 25  mg, Tablet with 50  mg, Delayed- release tablets with 75  mg, Extended- release tablets with 100  mg, Ophthalmic Solution with 0.1  %, Delayed- release tablets with 50  mg, Gel with 1  %, Capsule with   , Suppository with   , Injection with   , Spray with 4  %, Topical solution with 1.6  %, Plaster with 1  %, Gel with 3  %,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 655   Edition : 12, Martindale    Page : 47-48   Edition : 37, Martindale    Page : 48   Edition : 37, Martindale    Page : 47-48   Edition : 37,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IV, IM, rectal, Topical,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 47   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Rheumatoid arthiritis Oral 75 150 mg Dose: Given daily in divided doses
2 Migraine Oral 50 mg Dose: taken at the first signs of an attack
3 Postoperative pain 75 mg Injection Dose: Given over 30 to 120 minutes or as a bolus injection
4 Prevention of intra-operative miosis during cataract surgery ophthalmic 0.1 % Solution Dose: instilled in the appropriate eye 4 times during the 2 hours before surgery
5 Pain Topical 1 % Gel
6 Inflammation Topical 1 % Gel
7 Rheumatoid arthritis rectal 75 150 mg Suppository Dose: Given daily in divided doses.
8 Treatment of postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery ophthalmic 1 % Solution Dose: instilled 4 times daily for up to 28 days starting 24 hours after surgery
9 Control of post-photorefractive keratectomy pain ophthalmic 1 % Solution Dose: instilled twice in the hour before surgery
10 Pain control after accidental trauma ophthalmic 1 % Solution Dose: One drop instilled 4 times daily for up to 2 days
11 Treatment of inflammation and discomfort after strabismus surgery ophthalmic 1 % Solution Dose: One drop instilled 4 times daily for the first week
12 Control of inflammation after argon laser trabeculoplasty ophthalmic 1 % Solution Dose: One drop instilled 4 times during the 2 hours before the procedure followed by one drop 4 times daily for up to 7 days after the procedure
13 Treatment of pain and discomfort after radial keratotomy ophthalmic 1 % Solution Dose: one drop is instilled before surgery followed by one drop immediately after surgery and then one drop 4 times daily for up to 2 days
14 Relieve symptoms of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis ophthalmic 1 % Solution Dose: one drop is instilled 4 times daily as necessary
15 Analgesic anti-inflammatory Topical 30 40 mg Spray t.i.d. Dose: 4 or 5 spray may be applied.
16 Analgesic anti-inflammatory Topical 120 mg Spray Dose: up to a maximum of 15 sprays daily, treatment should be reviewed after 7 or 8 days
17 Osteoarthritis in superficial joints Topical 1.6 % Topical solution Dose: it is applied in small aliquots to achieve a total of 20 or 40 drops, depending on the size of the joint, and repeated four times daily.
18 Actinic keratoses Topical 3 % Gel Dose: for 60 to 90 days but the optimum therapeutic effect may not be seen until 30 days after the end of treatment
19 Ankle sprain Topical 1 % Plaster o.d. Dose: 1 plaster is applied once daily for a maximum of 3 days
20 Epicondylitis Topical 1 % Plaster b.d. Dose: 1 plaster is applied twice daily for a maximum of 14 days

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 48   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Rheumatic disease Childern aged over 14 years Oral 75 100 mg
2 Postoperative pain Childern aged over 14 years Oral 75 100 mg
3 Musculoskeletal disorders Childern aged over 14 years Oral 75 100 mg
4 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis 1 Year 12 Year Oral 1 3 mg/kg
5 Acute postoperative pain 6 Year 12 Year rectal 1 2 mg/kg
6 Rheumatic disease 6 Month 18 Year Oral 3 5 mg/kg
7 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis 6 Month 18 Year Oral 3 5 mg/kg
8 Pain 6 Month 18 Month Oral 0.3 1 mg/kg t.i.d.
9 Inflammation 6 Month 18 Year Oral 0.3 1 mg/kg t.i.d.
10 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis 1 Year 12 Year rectal 1 3 mg/kg Suppository
11 Pain 6 Month 18 Year rectal 0.3 1 mg/kg Suppository t.i.d.
12 Inflammation 1 Month 18 Year rectal 0.3 1 mg/kg Suppository t.i.d.
13 Postoperative pain 2 Year 18 Year IV infusion 0.3 1 mg/kg Injection o.d/b.d
14 Postoperative pain 2 Year 18 Year IM 0.3 1 mg/kg Injection o.d/b.d

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 48   Edition : 37,
►  Organ Affected Liver Disease (Protein binding reduced)  

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Diclofenac' drug in IgA Nephropathy disease, then Please not be used   if he ever suffered from acute kidney injury disease.
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Diclofenac' drug in  PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE  disease, then Please dont use .

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Diclofenac' drug in  PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE  disease, then Please dont use .

►  Side Effect : pain at the injection site, tissue damage at the site of injection, Suppositories can cause local irritation, Transient burning, Stinging in the eye, Topical preparations cause site reactions., Gastrointestinal disturbances, gastrointestinal discomfort, nausea, diarrhoea, Peptic Ulceration, severe gastrointestinal bleeding, headache, vertigo, Dizziness, Nervousness, tinnitus, drowsiness, insomnia, hypersensitivity reactions, fever, angioedema, bronchospasm, Rashes, visual disturbances, anaemias, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, eosinophilia, agranulocytosis, fluid retention, photosensitivity, Induction or exacerbation of colitis, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 46,100   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Diclofenac is with Anticoagulant , , Cardiac Glycosides, Angiotensin-conveting Enzyme Inhibitors , Diuretic Agents , Quinolones, sulfonylurea antidiabetic , Corticosteroid , selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, Selective nonadrenaline reuptake inhibitors, Alcohol, Bisphosphonates, NSAIDS,  Methotrexate, Cyclosporine , Phenytoin , Venlafaxine , Clopidogrel , Ticlopidine , Iloprost , Erlotinib, Sibutramine, Pentoxifylline , Zidovudine, Ritonavir, Mifepristone , Heparin ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 47,103   Edition : 37, Martindale    Page : 47-103   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Interactions involving NSAIDs include enhancement of the effects of oral anticoagulants (especially by azapropazone and phenylbutazone) and increased plasma concentrations of lithium, methotrexate, and cardiac glycosides. The risk of nephrotoxicity may be increased if given with ACE inhibitors, ciclosporin, tacrolimus, or diuretics. Effects on renal function may lead to reduced excretion of some drugs. There may also be an increased risk of hyperkalaemia with ACE inhibitors and some diuretics, including potassiumsparing diuretics. Convulsions may occur due to an interaction with quinolones. NSAIDs may increase the effects of phenytoin and sulfonylurea antidiabetics. The risk of gastrointestinal bleeding and ulceration associated with NSAIDs is increased when used with corticosteroids, the SSRIs, the SNRI venlafaxine, the antiplatelets clopidogrel and ticlopidine, iloprost, erlotinib, sibutramine, or, possibly, alcohol, bisphosphonates, or pentoxifylline. There may be an increased risk of haematotoxicity if zidovudine is used with NSAIDs. Ritonavir may increase the plasma concentrations of NSAIDs. Licensed product information for mifepristone advises of a theoretical risk that prostaglandin synthetase inhibition by NSAIDs or aspirin may alter the efficacy of mifepristone. Diclofenac should not be given intravenously to patients already receiving other NSAIDs or anticoagulants including low-dose heparin.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 47,103   Edition : 37,


►  Absolute Contraindication : moderate or severe renal impairment   dehydration   patients with history of haemorrhagic diathesis   cerebrovascular bleeding   and asthma   patients undergoing surgery with a high risk of haemorrhage   topical use in patients who wear soft contact lenses.  

►  Contraindication : cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disorder, cerebral bleeding, Haemrrhagic disorder, , renal impairment,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 47   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Inhibit cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), decreasing the biosynthesis of downstream eicosanoids and thereby limiting the inflammatory response,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 761   Edition : 3,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- 6-Gingerol with same pathway, 6-Gingerol with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Cox-1 inhibitor --- (Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra, E., Ammit, A., Roufogalis, B., Tran, V., & Duke, C. (2003). Effective anti-platelet and COX-1 enzyme inhibitors from pungent constituents of ginger. Thrombosis Research, 111(4-5), 259-265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2003.09.009 )
  • Flavonoids help to reduce the uric acid levels in bloodstream. --- (18. PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14693173, http://www.travolekar.ru/arch/Pdr_for_Herbal_Medicines.pdf,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- with Flavonoids help to reduce the uric acid levels in bloodstream., CALCIUM with Decrease in Nutrient Level, CAFFEINE with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer,

      ►  Reference :-
  • PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S.
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.travolekar.ru/arch/Pdr_for_Herbal_Medicines.pdf, http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- LITHIUM with Diclofenac may inhibit the excretion of lithium from the body , resulting in higher blood levels of the mineral ., BETANIN HCL with Increase the risk of stomach bleeding , WILLOW BARK with It decreased blood level of drug ., CANNABIS with Cannabis antagonist the effect of NSAIDs,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal, Biliary,
    Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 967   Edition : 12,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   1 hours,    Max value :-   2 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 967   Edition : 12,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   2 hours,    Max value :-   3 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 967   Edition : 12,