Epinephrine (adrenaline) is a Medicine belongs to sympathomimetic group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1328   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : Epipen,Asthma nefrin,Anapen,Fastjekt,InfectoKrupp,Epifrin,Epinal,Epi- Pen,Glaucon,microNefrin,Nephron

  ►  Strength : Ophthalmic drop with 0.1  %, Ophthalmic drop with 0.5  %, Ophthalmic drop with 1  %, Ophthalmic drop with 2  %, Nasal Drop with 0.1  %, Nasal Spray with 0.1  %, Injection with   , Aerosol with   , Topical solution with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 148   Edition : 12, Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 148   Edition : 37, Martindale    Page : 1328   Edition : 37,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : IV, IM, SC, ophthalmic, nasal, inhalation,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1326,1328   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Anaphylactic shock IM 500 micrograms Injection Dose: (0.5 mL of a 1 in 1000 solution), repeated as necessary every 5 minutes.
2 Advanced cardiac life support IV 1 mg Injection (10 mL of a 1 in 10 000 solution) and this may be repeated as often as every 2 to 3 minutes throughout the resuscitation procedure.
3 Acute asthmatic attacks s.c/ i.m 0.3 0.5 mL Injection Dose: Given 1 in 100 aqueous solution (300 to 500 micrograms).
4 Acute asthmatic attacks inhalation 160 275 micrograms Aerosol Dose: Given 1 or 2 metered, repeated, if necessary, after 3 hours.
5 Local anaesthetic 5 microgram/ml A concentration of 1 in 200 000 is usually used.
6 Local anaesthetic 12.5 microgram/ml Dose: For dental preparation, A concentration of upto 1 in 80 000 is usually used.
7 Glaucoma ophthalmic 0.5 % drops
8 Glaucoma ophthalmic 1 % drops
9 Glaucoma ophthalmic 2 % drops

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1326-1327   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Anaphylactic shock IM 10 micrograms/kg Injection
2 Anaphylactic shock 6Month IM 50 micrograms Injection
3 Anaphylactic shock 6 Month 6 Year IM 120 micrograms Injection
4 Anaphylactic shock 6 Year 12 Year IM 250 micrograms Injection
5 Advanced cardiac life support IV 10 micrograms/kg Injection
6 Advanced cardiac life support IV 100 micrograms/kg
7 Acute asthmatic attacks SC 0.01 ml/kg Injection
8 Acute asthmatic attacks IM 0.01 ml/kg Injection

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1326-1327   Edition : 37,
►  Side Effect : anxiety, dyspnoea, hyperglycemia, Restlessness, tachycardia, palpitations, tremor, sweating, hypersalivation, weakness, Dizziness, headache, coldness of the extremities, vasoconstriction, epigastric pain, Blurred Vision, photophobia, obstruction, Obstruction of the nasolachrymal ducts,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1325   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Epinephrine (adrenaline) is with Beta Blockers ,  Cocaine ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1326   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Adrenaline has direct alpha- and beta-agonist actions and its interactions are complex and may be hazardous. Particular caution is needed if adrenaline is given to patients taking beta blockers since severe hypertension may result; patients taking beta blockers may also have an impaired response to adrenaline if it is needed for anaphylaxis. It is common practice to give adrenaline with a local anaesthetic to produce vasoconstriction; the lowest effective concentration of adrenaline should be used. However, use with cocaine may increase the risk of cardiac arrhythmias and particular caution is required.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1326   Edition : 37,


►  Contraindication : Active labor, angle-closure glaucoma, Shock (other than anaphylaxis), organic brain damage, Cardiac arrhythmias, Coronary insufficiency, severe hypertension, cerebral atherosclerosis,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 435   Edition : 3,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Increase cAMP by activating G protein-coupled adrenergic receptors; acting at cardiac β1-adrenergic receptors, agonists have positive inotropic, choronotropic, and lusitropic effects.,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 435   Edition : 3,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Long peper with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Anti-allergic reaction --- (Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://freepharmadownloads.blogspot.com/2013/02/pharmacognosy-ckkokate-free-download.html,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA



    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1326   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :
      Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA