Flunitrazepam is a Medicine belongs to Sedatives- hypnotics group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1074   Edition : 38,

  ►   Brandname : Hypnodorm,Rohypnol

  ►  Strength : Injection with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1073   Edition : 38,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IV, IM,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1100   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Insomnia Oral 0.5 2 mg Given at night. In elderly or debilitated patients the initial dose should not exceed 500 micrograms at night; up to 1 mg may be given if necessary.
2 Premedicant in surgical procedures oral / i.m 1 2 mg
3 Induction of general anaesthesia slow i.v 1 2 mg Injection

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1073   Edition : 38,

Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  

Ref :- Book :
►  Side Effect : drowsiness, Sedation, muscle weakness, ataxia, vertigo, headache, Confusion, Depression, slurred speech, dysarthria, changes in libido, tremor, visual disturbances, urinary retention, incontinence, gastrointestinal disturbance, changes in salivation, amnesia, hypothermia, Some patients may experience a paradoxical excitation which may lead to hostility, aggression, and disinhibition, Respiratory depression and hypotension occasionally occur with high dosage and parenteral use, Pain and thrombophlebitis may occur with some intravenous formulations, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1090,1100   Edition : 37,    Page :    Edition : ,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Flunitrazepam is with Alcohol, antidepressants, Sedative antihistamines, Antipsychotics, General anaesthetics , , opioid analgesics, ,  NA

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Enhanced sedation or respiratory and cardiovascular depression may occur if diazepam or other benzodiazepines are given with other drugs that have CNS depressant properties; these include alcohol, antidepressants sedative antihistamines, antipsychotics, general anaesthetics, other hypnotics or sedatives, and opioid analgesics. The metabolism of most benzodiazepines is mediated primarily by the cytochrome P450 system, particularly the isoenzyme CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Hence, adverse effect may also be produced by use with drugs that inhibit or induce or are metabolised by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 isoenzymes. ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1093, 1101   Edition : 37,

►  Contraindication : acute pulmonary insufficiency, pre-existing CNS depression or coma, myasthenia gravis, sleep apnea,, respiratory depression,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1092,1100   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   The benzodiazepines bind to molecular components of the GABA A receptor in neuronal membranes in the central nervous system. This receptor, which functions as a chloride ion channel, is activated by the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. The GABA A receptor has a pentameric structure assembled from five subunits (each with four membrane-spanning domains) selected from multiple polypeptide classes (α, β, γ, δ, ε, π, ρ, etc). Multiple subunits of several of these classes have been characterized, among them six different α (eg, α1 through α6), four β, and three γ. A major isoform of the GABA A receptor that is found in many regions of the brain consists of two α1, two β2, and one γ2 subunits. In this isoform, the two binding sites for GABA are located between adjacent α1 and β2 subunits, and the binding pocket for benzodiazepines (the BZ site of the GABA A receptor) is between an α1 and the γ2 subunit. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Electrophysiologic studies have shown that benzodiazepines potentiate GABAergic inhibition at all levels of the neuraxis, including the spinal cord, hypothalamus, hippocampus, substantia nigra, cerebellar cortex, and cerebral cortex. Benzodiazepines appear to increase the efficiency of GABAergic synaptic inhibition. The benzodiazepines do not substitute for GABA but appear to enhance GABA’s effects allosterically without directly activating GABA A receptors or opening the associated chloride channels. The enhancement in chloride ion conductance induced by the interaction of benzodiazepines with GABA takes the form of an increase in the frequency of channel-opening events.,
Ref :-   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 378,379   Edition : 12,

Pathway of Dietry Product

​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- NA

Dietry Substance Interactions

​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA

ContraIndication Dietry Substance

​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1101   Edition : 37,

►    Plasma Half-life :
  Min value :-   16 hours,    Max value :-   35 hours,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1101   Edition : 37,

►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   1 hours,    Max value :-   NA
Ref :-   Book : Nelson's textbook of Pediatrics    Page : 675   Edition : 19,