Hydrochlorothiazide is a Medicine belongs to Diuretic Agents group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1441   Edition : 37,    Page :   Edition : ,

  ►   Brandname : Dithiazide, Disalunil, diu-melusin, Esidrix, Aquazide, BPzide, Esidrex, Esidrix†, HydroDiuril, Microzide,Telma H,Telma AMH

  ►  Strength : Capsule with 12.5  mg, Tablet with 25  mg, Tablet with 50  mg, Tablet with 100  mg, Solution with 10  mg/ml, Solution with 100  mg/ml,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 269   Edition : 12,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1441   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 hypertension Oral 12.5 mg Dose: increasing to 25 to 50 mg daily if necessary, either alone or with other antihypertensives. Doses of up to 100 mg have been suggested but are rarely necessar
2 Oedema Oral 25 50 mg Dose: Given daily, reduced to a dose of 25 to 50 mg daily or intermittently; in severe cases initial doses of up to 200 mg daily have been suggested.
3 Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus Oral 100 mg Dose: Given daily.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1441   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 hypertension Oral 1 2 mg/kg
2 hypertension Oral 1 2 mg/kg
3 Oedema Oral 1 2 mg/kg
4 Oedema Oral 1 2 mg/kg
5 hypertension 6Month Oral 3 mg/kg
6 Oedema 6Month Oral 3 mg/kg
7 hypertension 2Year Oral 37.5 mg
8 Oedema 2Year Oral 37.5 mg
9 hypertension 2 Year 12 Year Oral 100 mg
10 Oedema 2 Year 12 Year Oral 100 mg

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1441   Edition : 37,
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Hydrochlorothiazide' drug in  Acute Pancreatitis  disease, then Please use with caution .

►  Side Effect : dry mouth, thirst, weakness, lethargy, drowsiness, Restlessness, muscle pain, cramp, seizure, oliguria, hypotension, gastrointestinal disturbance, anorexia, gastric irritation, nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhoea, sialadenitis, headache, Dizziness, photosensitivity reactions, paraesthesia, impotence, yellow vision, hypersenstivity, Skin rashes, fever, pulmonary oedema, pneumonitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, anaphylaxis, cholestatic jaundice, cholestasis, blood dyscrasias, thrombocytopenia, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1438   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Hydrochlorothiazide is with , Beta 2 Agonist, Alpha blocker, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, Alcohol, Barbiturates , Opioids, Corticosteroids, Non Sterodial Anti- Inflammatory Drugs , , TETRACYCLINES , ,  Astemizole, Terfenadine, Pimozide , Halofantrine, Sotalol , Atracurium , Corticotropin , Salbutamol , Carbenoxolone, Amphotericin B , reboxetine, Noradrenaline/Norepinephrine , Allopurinol ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1440   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Many of the interactions of hydrochlorothiazide and other thiazides are due to their effects on fluid and electrolyte balance. Diuretic-induced hypokalaemia may enhance the toxicity of digitalis glycosides and may also increase the risk of arrhythmias with drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as astemizole, terfenadine, halofantrine, pimozide, and sotalol. Thiazides may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of competitive neuromuscular blockers, such as atracurium, probably by their hypokalaemic effect. The potassium- depleting effect of diuretics may be enhanced by corticosteroids, corticotropin, beta2 agonists such as salbutamol, carbenoxolone, amphotericin B, or reboxetine. Diuretics may enhance the effect of other antihypertensives, particularly the first-dose hypotension that occurs with alpha blockers or ACE inhibitors. Orthostatic hypotension associated with diuretics may be enhanced by alcohol, barbiturates, or opioids. The antihypertensive effects of diuretics may be antagonised by drugs that cause fluid retention, such as corticosteroids, NSAIDs, or carbenoxolone; diuretics may enhance the nephrotoxicity of NSAIDs. Thiazides have been reported to diminish the response to pressor amines, such as noradrenaline, but the clinical significance of this effect is uncertain. Thiazides should not usually be used with lithium since the association may lead to toxic blood concentrations of lithium. Other drugs for which increased toxicity has been reported when given with thiazides include allopurinol and tetracyclines. Thiazides may alter the requirements for hypoglycaemics in diabetic patients.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1440   Edition : 37,


►  Contraindication : Severe hepatic impairment, Addison’s disease , severe renal impairment, Anuria, preexisting hypercalcaemia,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1440   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Inhibit sodium chloride reabsorption by acting competitive antagonists at NCC sodium chloride co- transporter in apical (luminal) membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells; promote increased transcellular calcium reabsorption in distal convoluted tubule.,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 352   Edition : 3,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Lemon with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • high water content Diuretic properties --- (PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.travolekar.ru/arch/Pdr_for_Herbal_Medicines.pdf,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- IRON with Decrease in Nutrient Level,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- ALOE VERA with Cause hypokalemia with potassium depleting diuretic .,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: Pharmaceutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1440   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   5 hours,    Max value :-   15 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1440   Edition : 37,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA