Insulin is a Medicine belongs to Antidiabetic group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 487   Edition : 38,    Page :   Edition : ,

  ►   Brandname : Apidra, Humalog, Humulin R; Humulin N, Actrapid, Bovine, Fastact,Human Mixtard,mixtard

  ►  Strength : Injection with 100  units, Injection with 500  units,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 748   Edition : 12, Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 748   Edition : 38,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : IM, SC, inhalation, Intraperitoneal, Oral, IV infusion, IV bolus,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 479   Edition : 38, Harrison's principles of internal medicine    Page : 2979   Edition : 18,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus Usually 0.6-0.7 units/kg body weight per day, with a range of 0.2- 1 units/kg per day. Obese patients generally and pubertal adolescents require more(1-2 units/kg per day) because of resistance of peripheral tissues to insulin.
2 Diabetic ketoacidosis IV bolus 0.1 units/kg Injection
3 Diabetic ketoacidosis IV bolus 0.1 units/kg Injection

Ref :-  Book : Goodman    Page : 1253   Edition : 12, Harrison's principles of internal medicine    Page : 2979   Edition : 18,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 481   Edition : 38,
►  Side Effect : Hypoglycaemia, resulting from increased sympathetic activity include hunger, pallor, sweating, palpitations, anxiety, and tremulousness. Other symptoms include headache, visual disturbances such as blurred or double vision, slurred speech, , paraesthesia of the mouth and fingers, If untreated, hypoglycaemia may lead to convulsions and coma which should not be confused with hyperglycaemic coma., Lipoatrophy or lipohypertrophy , weight gain., transient blurred vision and peripheral oedema may occur in the first few weeks of therapy. Insulin occasionally causes local or systemic hypersensitivity reactions. , Local reactions, characterised by erythema and pruritus at the injection site. Generalised hypersensitivity may produce urticaria, angioedema, and very rarely anaphylactic reactions.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 483   Edition : 38,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Insulin is with Oral Contraceptive, Thyroid hormone , Thiazide Diuretics , , Corticosteroid , Tricyclic antidepressant , Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor, Beta Blockers , Anabolic Steroids, Alcohol, Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, , ,  Isoniazid , Cyclophosphamide , Diazoxide , Nifedipine , Diltiazem , Chlorpromazine , Chlordiazepoxide , Amitriptyline , Tetracycline , Octreotide , Mebendazole , Guanethidine, Fenfluramine, Disopyramide , Aspirin, Lanreotide ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 487   Edition : 38,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  ACE inhibitors may increase insulin sensitivity and thus decrease insulin requirements, Alcohol inhibits gluconeogenesis, Aspirin produces a modest decrease in blood-glucose concentrations. The effects of Beta blockers on the sympathetic nervous system the usual premonitory signs of hypoglycaemia may not occur, allowing a severe episode to develop before the patient is aware and able to counter it. Diabetes worsened in an insulin treated diabetic when given diltiazem. increased insulin requirements developed in a previously well controlled diabetic after treatment with interferon alfa 2a. Both increases and decreases in insulin requirements have been reported in insulin dependent diabetics given various oral contraceptives.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 487   Edition : 38,


►  Contraindication : Biphasic insulin, insulin zinc suspensions, isophane insulin, protamine zinc insulin, insulin detemir, and insulin glargine should never be given intravenously and they are not suitable for the emergency treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis., the metabolic effects of exercise and the precautions to be taken by the exercising type 1 diabetic.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 485   Edition : 38,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Insulin is a hormone that plays a key role in regulating carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. The major effects of insulin on carbohydrate homoeostasis follow its binding to specific cell-surface receptors on insulin-sensitive tissues, notably the liver, muscles, and adipose tissue. It inhibits hepatic glucose production and enhances peripheral glucose disposal thereby reducing blood-glucose concentration. It also inhibits lipolysis thereby preventing the formation of ketone bodies. Insulin binds to the α subunit of its receptor. The β subunit is a tyrosine kinase which is activated by insulin binding and its autophosphorylates. Tyrosine kinase also phosphorylates other substrates so that a signaling cascade is initiated and biological response ensues. Ref: Clinical Pharmacology, 680, 9. ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 478,479   Edition : 38,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Pseudoprotolinsaponin with Another pathway, Momordicin with Another pathway, Swerchirin with Another pathway, Swerchirin with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • insulin mimetic activity --- ( Modak, M., Dixit, P., Londhe, J., Ghaskadbi, S. and Devasagayam, T. (2007). Recent Advances in Indian Herbal Drug Research Guest Editor: Thomas Paul Asir Devasagayam Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 40(3), pp.163-173. )
  • insulin mimetic activity --- ( Modak, M., Dixit, P., Londhe, J., Ghaskadbi, S. and Devasagayam, T. (2007). Recent Advances in Indian Herbal Drug Research Guest Editor: Thomas Paul Asir Devasagayam Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 40(3), pp.163-173. )
  • insulin mimetic activity --- (Modak, M., Dixit, P., Londhe, J., Ghaskadbi, S. and Devasagayam, T. (2007). Recent Advances in Indian Herbal Drug Research Guest Editor: Thomas Paul Asir Devasagayam Indian Herbs and Herbal Drugs Used for the Treatment of Diabetes. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 40(3), pp.163-173. )
  • Antidiabetic effects --- (PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2275761/, http://www.travolekar.ru/arch/Pdr_for_Herbal_Medicines.pdf,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA



    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- ALFALFA with Interect with insulin , ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID with long term supplementation require some change in dosage of insulin ., CATS CLAY with Do not take with diabetic drug adverse effect have been reported., CHROMIUM with Alter insulin level , EPHEDRA with Elevate blood sugar level .,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: Pharmaceutical press.
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand

  •   ►  URL -- https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal, Hepatic (Metabolism),
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 487   Edition : 38,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA