Ketoconazole is a Medicine belongs to Antifungal group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 587   Edition : 38,

  ►   Brandname : Arcolane,Danfree,Danruf,Funazole,Fungicide,Hyphoral,Keto,Daktarin Gold,Dandrazol,Dandrid,Nizoral,Extina,Xolegel

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 200  mg, Cream with 2  %, Shampoo with 2  %, Suspension with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 858   Edition : 12, Martindale    Page : 587   Edition : 38,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, Topical,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 586   Edition : 38,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Prophylaxis of fungal infections Oral 200 mg Tablet o.d. With food, This may be increased to 400 mg daily if an adequate response is not obtained; in some infections even higher doses have been used.
2 Candidal or dermatophyte infections of the skin, or in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor Topical 2 % Cream o.d/b.d Continued for at least a few days after the disappearance of symptoms.
3 Seborrhoeic Dermatitis Topical 2 % Foam b.d. For 4 weeks.
4 Pityriasis versicolor Topical 2 % Shampoo o.d. For up to 5 days.
5 Dandruff or seborrhoeic dermatitis Topical 1 or 2 % Shampoo Twice weekly for 2 to 4 weeks.
6 Prophylaxis of seborrhoeic dermatitis Topical 2 % Shampoo once every 1 to 2 weeks.
7 For prophylaxis of pityriasis versicolor Topical 2 % Shampoo once daily for a maximum of 3 days before exposure to sunshine.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 586   Edition : 38, Martindale    Page : 586   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Fungal infections 15 to 30 kg Oral 100 mg o.d.
2 Fungal infections more than 30 kg Oral 200 mg Tablet o.d.

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 586   Edition : 38,
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Ketoconazole' drug in  Cushings syndrome  disease, then Please use with caution with cemetidine/pantoprazole .

►  Side Effect : gastrointestinal disturbance, , nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, transient elevations in serum concentrations of liver enzymes, hepatitis, gynaecomastia, oligospermia, menstrual irregularities, and adrenal cortex suppression, especially at high doses., allergic reactions such as urticaria and angioedema, irritation, dermatitis, or a burning sensation,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 586   Edition : 38,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Ketoconazole is with Oral Contraceptive, Alcohol, Proton pump inhibitor , Histamine H2-receptor antagonist, Antacid , Antimuscarinic,  Phenytoin , Nevirapine, Efavirenz, Isoniazid , Rifampicin , Sucralfate ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 587   Edition : 38,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Use of drugs that reduce stomach acidity, such as antimuscarinics, antacids, histamine H2-antagonists, and proton pump inhibitors, may reduce the absorption of ketoconazole. Absorption of ketoconazole may also be reduced by sucralfate. Enzyme-inducing drugs such as rifampicin, isoniazid, efavirenz, nevirapine, or phenytoin may reduce plasma-ketoconazole concentrations. Concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin may also be reduced by ketoconazole. A disulfiram-like reaction may occur in patients taking ketoconazole after drinking alcohol. The efficacy of oral contraceptives may be reduced.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 587   Edition : 38,


►  Contraindication : Pre-existing liver disease, Pregnancy,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 587   Edition : 38,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Inhibit ultimate conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol by inhibiting 14α-sterol demethylase; the resulting decrease in ergosterol synthesis and accumulation of 14α-methyl sterols disrupt the tightly packed acyl chains of the phospholipids in the fungal membrane. ,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 627   Edition : 3,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Henna with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Anti-fungal --- (Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.vitorrentz.in/search/Text+Book+Of+Pharmacognosy, +C.+K.+Kokate, +A.P.+Purohit, +S.B.+Gokhale,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- MAGNESIUM with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor, CALCIUM with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor, ZINC with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- COLA ACUMINATA I.E. COLA with Interact with druge by altering gastric acidity. ,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Williamson, E. (2009). Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interaction .. London: Pharmacutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Fecal, Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 586   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   Initial half-life of 2 hours and a terminal half-life of about 8 hours.,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 586   Edition : 38,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   2 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 586   Edition : 38,