Labetalol is a Medicine belongs to Cardiovascular drugs group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1453   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : Trandate,Normodyne,Presolol

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 100  mg, Tablet with 200  mg, Tablet with 300  mg, Injection with 5  mg/ml, Oral Suspension with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 167   Edition : 12, Martindale    Page : 1453   Edition : 37,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IV,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1453   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 hypertension Oral 100 mg Tablet b.d. Dose: (inital dose) with food, gradually increased if necessary according to response and standing blood pressure, to 200 to 400 mg twice daily; total daily doses of 2.4 g, in two to four divided doses, have occasionally been required. Lower doses may be adequate in elderly patients; an initial dose of 50 to 100 mg twice daily has been recommended, and the usual maintenance dose is 100 to 200 mg twice daily.
2 Emergency treatment of hypertension slow i.v 50 mg Injection Dose: Given over a period of at least 1 minute; if necessary this dose may be repeated at intervals of 5 minutes until a total of 200 mg has been given.
3 Hypertension during pregnancy IV infusion 20 mg/hour Injection Dose: doubled every 30 minutes until satisfactory responses obtained or a dose of 160 mg/hour is reached.
4 Hypertension after myocardial infarction IV infusion 15 mg/hour Injection Dose: gradually increased until a satisfactory response is obtained or a dose of 120 mg/hour is reached.
5 Hypotensive anaesthesia IV 10 20 mg Injection Dose: with increments of 5 to 10 mg if satisfactory hypotension is not achieved after 5 minutes.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1453   Edition : 37,

Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Hypertensive emergencies IV infusion 500 micrograms/kg/hour Injection
2 Hypertensive emergencies 1 Month 12 Year IV infusion 0.5 1 mg/kg/hour Injection
3 Hypertensive emergencies 12 Year 18 Year IV infusion 30 120 mg/hour Injection
4 hypertension 1 Month 12 Year Oral 1 2 mg/kg t.i.d/q.i.d
5 hypertension 1Month 12Year IV 250 500 micrograms/kg Injection
6 hypertension 12 Year 18 Year Oral

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1453   Edition : 37,
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Labetalol' drug in  Eclampsia   disease, then Please Contraindication: hepatic disorders, asthma, congestive cardiac failure. .

►  Side Effect : Orthostatic hypotension, Dizziness, scalp tingling, nasal congestion, muscle weakness, tremor, urinary retention, hepatitis, jaundice, heart failure, heart block, bronchospasm, fatigue, coldness of the extremities, bradycardia, hypotension, shortness of breath, dyspnoea, pneumonitis, pulmonary fibrosis, pleurisy, headache, Depression, hallucinations, Confusion, amnesia, Sleep disturbances, nightmares, coma, convulsion, paraesthesia, arthralgia, myopathies, muscle cramps, Raynaud’s syndrome, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal cramp, Hypoglycaemia, Hyperglycaemia, changes in blood concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol, Rashes, pruritus, exacerbation of psoriasis, excess sweating, reversible alopecia, Blurred Vision, conjunctivitis, soreness, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenia, transient eosinophilia, Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), dry mouth, raised liver enzymes, male impotence, sclerosing peritonitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, abrupt withdrawal of beta blocker may exacerbate angina and sudden death, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1349-1350,1452   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Labetalol is with Barbiturates , , Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs, Sympathomimetic Drugs , General anaesthetics , NSAIDS, Antiarrhythmics, Calcium Channel Blockers , Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor,  Nadolol, Atenolol , Timolol , Propranolol , Hydralazine , Fluvoxamine, Erythromycin , Cimetidine , Rifampicin , Cholestyramine , Insulin , Epinephrine (adrenaline) , Clonidine , Aldesleukin , Verapamil ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1352,1453   Edition : 37,

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Drugs that enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta blockers, such as ACE inhibitors, calcium-channel blockers, and clonidine may be useful in controlling hypertension. Drugs that cause hypotension such as aldesleukin and general anaesthetics also enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta blockers while other drugs, for example NSAIDs, antagonise the antihypertensive effects. Use of beta blockers with other cardiac depressants such as antiarrhythmics and rate-limiting calciumchannel blockers can precipitate bradycardia and heart block; the combination of intravenous verapamil and beta blockers should especially be avoided. Patients taking beta blockers may have an exaggerated hypertensive response to adrenaline, caused by unopposed alpha-mediated vasoconstriction, while the bronchodilator effects are inhibited; the response to adrenaline given for anaphylaxis may also be reduced in patients on long-term treatment with beta blockers. In diabetic patients beta blockers can reduce the response to insulin and oral hypoglycaemics through their effects on pancreatic beta receptors. Drugs that reduce absorption include aluminium salts and bile-acid binding resins such as colestyramine. Metabolism of some beta blockers can be increased by drugs such as barbiturates and rifampicin and decreased with drugs such as cimetidine, erythromycin, fluvoxamine, and hydralazine. Drugs that alter hepatic blood flow also affect metabolism of some beta blockers. For example, cimetidine and hydralazine decrease hepatic blood flow and this contributes to the decreased hepatic clearance seen with these drugs. Drugs that influence hepatic metabolism affect beta blockers that are extensively metabolised, such as labetalol, propranolol, and timolol, while beta blockers that are excreted largely unchanged, for example atenolol and nadolol, are unaffected.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1352,1453   Edition : 37,

►  Contraindication : Bronchospasm, asthma, metabolic acidosis, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, severe peripheral arterial disease, Sinus bradycardia, Second and third degree AV block, uncontrolled heart failure, hyperthyroidism, Hypoglycaemia, Prinzmetal’s angina, severity of anaphylactoid reactions, Pregnancy, Phaeochromocytoma should not be given beta blockers without alpha-adrenoceptor blocking therapy as well, Labetalol causes orthostatic hypotension it is recommended that injections are given to patients when they are lying down and that patients should remain lying down for the next 3 hours, Labetalol should be withdrawn from patients who develop signs of hepatic impairment,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1351,1453   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Labetalol is a non-cardioselective beta blocker It is reported to possess some intrinsic sympathomimetic and membrane-stabilising activity. In addition, it has selective alpha1-blocking properties which decrease peripheral vascular resistance. ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1453   Edition : 37,

Pathway of Dietry Product

​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Coconut water with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • High potassium content act as antihypertensive --- (Gopalan, C. (2012). Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition ,ICMR.: Hyderabad 500007,INDIA. )

  •   ►  URL -- search.&dq=Gopalan, +C., +Rama+Sastri, +B., +%26+Balasubramanian, +S.+(1971).+Nutritive+value+of+Indian+foods.+Hyderabad, +India:+National+Institute+of+Nutrition, +Indian+Council+of+Medical+Research.&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y,

    Dietry Substance Interactions

    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA

    ContraIndication Dietry Substance

    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal, Faecal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1453   Edition : 37,

    ►    Plasma Half-life :
      Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   1 hours,    Max value :-   2 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1453   Edition : 37,