Lopinavir is a Medicine belongs to Antiviral group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 989   Edition : 37   Martindale    Page : 989   Edition : 37  

  ►   Brandname : Kaletra, Aluvia, Ritomax-L
  ►  Strength : Capsule with 133.3/33.3 mg.  Solution with 80/20 mg/ml. 

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 889   Edition : 12  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 989   Edition : 37  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 HIV infection and AIDS Oral 400 mg b.d. Dose: given (with ritonavir 100 mg) twice daily. Alternatively, a once daily dose of lopinavir 800 mg (with ritonavir 200 mg) may be considered for patients having only very few ( less than 3) HIV-protease inhibitor- associated resistance mutations.
2 HIV infection and AIDS Oral 500 mg b.d. Dose: US licensed product information recommends that if the tablets are given in a treatment regimen with either amprenavir, nelfinavir, efavirenz, or nevirapine consideration be given to increasing the dose of lopinavir to 500 mg (with ritonavir 125 mg) twice daily. For patients taking the oral solution in such regimens the dose should be increased to lopinavir 533 mg (with ritonavir 133 mg) twice daily

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 990   Edition : 37  

Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 HIV infection and AIDS 2 Year Oral 230 mg/m2 Oral solution

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 990   Edition : 37  
►  Side Effect : Diarrhoea, Pancreatitis, Hepatotoxicity, Asthenia, Headache, Insomnia, Pain, Paraesthesia, Gastrointestinal disturbances, Acne, Rashes, Increases in serum cholesterol and triglycerides and raised liver enzymes, ECG abnormalities, Immune reconstitution syndrome, Lipodystrophy, central obesity, Dorsocervical fat enlargement , Peripheral wasting, Facial wasting, Breast enlargement, Cushingoid appearance, Hypertriglyceridaemia, Hypercholesterolaemia, Insulin resistance, Hyperglycaemia, Hyperlactataemia, Elevated creatine phosphokinase, Myalgia, Myositis
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 989   Edition : 37.  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Lopinavir is with Sildenafil , Salmeterol
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 989   Edition : 37.  

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Lopinavir is extensively metabolised by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP3A4. It is formulated with low-dose ritonavir, which inhibits this enzyme and thus increases exposure. The combination is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and increases plasma concentration of drugs mainly metabolised by this isoenzyme. It has also been shown in vivo to induce its own metabolism and to increase the biotransformation of some drugs metabolised by cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and by glucuronidation. Drugs that strongly induce CYP3A4 may result in decreased plasma concentrations of the combination. Owing to the potential for increased serum concentrations of sildenafil, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir should be avoided with sildenafil when given at the doses needed for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Similary, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir may increase serum concentration of inhaled salmeterol and the combination is not recommended.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 989   Edition : 37.  

►  Contraindication : Patients with advanced HIV disease may be at increased risk of elevated triglycerides and pancreatitis, and patients with a history of pancreatitis may be at increased risk for recurrence during treatment with ritonavir- boosted lopinavir. Such therapy should be stopped if symptoms of pancreatitis occur., Patients with preexisting liver dysfunction or markedly elevated liver enzymes are at increased risk for further hepatic toxicity and should be monitored carefully; stopping treatment should be considered if there is evidence of worsening liver function. Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir is contra-indicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment., Due to the potential for ECG abnormality and potential cardiac arrhythmia, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir should be used with caution in patients with underlying heart disease or conduction system abnormalities, or in those using other drugs known to prolong the PR interval., Use should also be avoided in those with congenital long-QT interval prolonging drugs, Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir is contra-indicated with drugs that are highly dependent on CYP3A4 for clearance and for which elevated plasma concentrations are associated with serious or life-threatening events. These drugs include the alpha1- adrenoceptor antagonist alfuzocin antihistamines (astemizole and terfenadine), ergot derivatives (dihydroergotamine, ergometrine, ergotamine, and methylergometrine), gastrointestinal prokinetics (cisapride), antipsychotics (pimozide), sedatives and hypnotics (midazolam and triazolam), and statins (simvastatin and lovastatin).
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 989   Edition : 37.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   It is a selective, competitive, reversible inhibitor of HIV-1 protease. It interferes with the formation of essential viral proteins making them incapable of infecting other cells.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 989   Edition : 37.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product

​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- African potato with Another pathway.  

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • antiretroviral . --- (Mills, E., & Cooper, C. (2005). African herbal medicines in the treatment of HIV: Hypoxis and Sutherlandia. An overview of evidence and pharmacology. Nutrition Journal, 4(19). )

  •   ►  URL --
  • https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-4-19 .

  • DIETARY Substance Interactions

    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA

    ContraIndication DIETARY Substance

    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal, Faecal
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 990   Edition : 37.  

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   5 hours,    Max value :-   6 hours.  
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 990   Edition : 37.  

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   4 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 990   Edition : 37.