Metformin is a Medicine belongs to Antidiabetic group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 491   Edition : 38,    Page :   Edition : ,

  ►   Brandname : Bigomet,Emfor,Emnorm,Exermet,Formin,Glumet,Glucophage,Metsol,Fortamet,Dynaglipt M,Exermet gm,Pioz MF,Glimestar M1,glimestar m2,Glimisave M2,Glimisave M1,Glycomet SR,Glynase-MF,jalra m ,Met Small,Glucomust-PM

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 500  mg, Tablet with 850  mg, Tablet with 1000  mg, Tablet (Extended Release Tablets) with 750  mg, Solution with 500/5  mg/ml,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 766   Edition : 12,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 489   Edition : 38,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Type 2 diabetes mellitus Oral 500 mg Tablet b.d/t.i.d Or 850 mg once or twice daily with or after meals, gradually increased if necessary, at intervals of at least 1 week, to 2 to 3 g daily; doses of 3 g daily are associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal adverse effects.
2 Type 2 diabetes mellitus Oral 500 mg Tablet At breakfast for at least 1 week, then increasing to 500 mg twice daily with the morning and evening meal for at least 1 week, then 500mg 3 times daily the usual maximum of 2 g daily in 3 divided doses.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 489   Edition : 38,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Type 2 diabetes mellitus 10 Year older Oral 500 mg Tablet o.d.

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 489   Edition : 38,
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Metformin' drug in diabetes disease, then Please be used with caution   if he ever suffered from chronic kidney disease disease.
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Metformin' drug in chronic kidney disease disease, then Please be avoided   if he ever suffered from acute kidney injury disease.
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Metformin' drug in diabetes disease, then Please contraindicated   if he ever suffered from Diabetic Nephropathy disease.
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Metformin' drug in diabetes disease, then Please contraindicated   if he ever suffered from congestive heart failure disease.
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Metformin' drug in diabetes disease, then Please contraindicated   if he ever suffered from sepsis disease.
►  Side Effect : anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, weight loss, taste disturbances, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 490,468   Edition : 38,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Metformin is with , Alcohol,  NA

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Drugs that lower blood glucose concentrations increases the risk of hypoglycaemia, while drugs that increase blood glucose may reduce the effect of Metformin therapy. In general fewer drug interactions have been reported with Metformin than with sulfonylureas. Alcohol may increase the risk of lactic acidosis as well as of hypoglycaemia. ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 490,469   Edition : 38,


►  Contraindication : heart failure, hepatic disease, renal impairment, septicemia, Alcohol abuse, respiratory disease, Iodinated contrast media if acute alteration of renal function is suspected, as this may result in lactic acidosis metabolic acidosis.,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 539   Edition : 3,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Metformin increases the activity of the AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is activated by phosphorylation when cellular energy stores are reduced (i.e., lower concentrations of ATP and phosphocreatine). Activated AMPK stimulates fatty acid oxidation, glucose uptake, and nonoxidative metabolism, and it reduces lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. The net result of these actions is increased glycogen storage in skeletal muscle, lower rates of hepatic glucose production, increased insulin sensitivity, and lower blood glucose levels.,
Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 1258   Edition : 12,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Quercetin with same pathway, Lemon with same pathway, Benincasae semen with same pathway, Pini Folium with same pathway, Moli Folium with same pathway, Ephedra with same pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • AMPK activator --- ( Hardie, D. (2013). AMPK: A Target for Drugs and Natural Products With Effects on Both Diabetes and Cancer. Diabetes, 62(7), 2164-2172. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-0368 )
  • lemon act as AMPK activator --- ( Shin, Hye-yeon. "The Extract Of Herbal Medicines Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Diet-Induced Obese Rats". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013.Article ID 756025 (2013): 8. )
  • Benincasae semen act as Ampk activator . --- (Shin, Hye-yeon. "The Extract Of Herbal Medicines Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Diet-Induced Obese Rats". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013.Article ID 756025 (2013): 8. )
  • Pini folium act as Ampk Activator . --- ( Shin, Hye-yeon. "The Extract Of Herbal Medicines Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Diet-Induced Obese Rats". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013.Article ID 756025 (2013): 8. )
  • Moli folium act as AMPK Activator. --- (Shin, Hye-yeon. "The Extract Of Herbal Medicines Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Diet-Induced Obese Rats". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013.Article ID 756025 (2013): 8. )
  • Ephedra act as AMPK activator. --- (Shin, Hye-yeon. "The Extract Of Herbal Medicines Activates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase In Diet-Induced Obese Rats". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013.Article ID 756025 (2013): 8. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/7/2164, /www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/756025/, https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/756025/,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- DHEA ( DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE ) with Increase in Nutrient Level, VITAMIN B12 with Decrease in Nutrient Level, MAGNESIUM with Decrease in Nutrient Level, GUARGUM with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID with long term supplementation require some change in dosage of diabetes medicaion ., ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID with It resulted in a significant worsening of glucose tolerance ., VITAMIN B12 with Reduce vitamin absorption .,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Michael, Z. (2007). Hand book of nutrition. New York: Thieme Stuttgart
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Michael, Z. (2007). Hand book of nutrition. New York: Thieme Stuttgart

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20, http://www.otto-wipfel.co.uk/otto/supplements-medication/DRUG-HERB-VITAMINS-INTERACTIONS-A-Z_Guide.pdf, http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 491   Edition : 38,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   2 ,    Max value :-   6 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 491   Edition : 38,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA