Midazolam is a Medicine belongs to Sedative-hypnotics/ benzodiazepines group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1088   Edition : 38,

  ►   Brandname : Hypnovel; Miben; Midapic; Midaz; Midosed; Midzol

  ►  Strength : Injection with 1  mg/ml, Injection with 5  mg/ml, Syrup with 2  mg/ml, Oral solution with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 446   Edition : 12, Martindale    Page : 1088   Edition : 38,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, rectal, IV, IM, buccal,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1085   Edition : 38,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Sedative dose for dental and minor surgical and other procedures IV 2 2.5 mg Injection At a rate of 2mg/minute 5 to 10 min before the stat of the procedure.
2 As a premedicant IM 5 mg Injection Doses range f rom 70 to 100 micrograms/kg.
3 Induction of anaesthesia Slow IV infusion 150 250 microgram/kg Injection In premedicated patients and at least 300 micrograms/kg in those who have not received a premedicant.
4 For sedation in combined anaesthesia IV 30 100 microgram/kg Injection Repeated as required or by intravenous infusion in a dose of 30 to 100 micrograms/kg every hour.
5 Insomnia Oral 7.5 15 mg At night.
6 Intensive care IV infusion 10 50 microgram/kg Injection

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1085   Edition : 38,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 sedative 1 Month 18 Year Oral 500 micrograms/kg
2 Sedation 6 Month 10 Year buccal 200 300 micrograms/kg
3 sedative 10 Year 18 Year buccal 6 7 mg
4 sedative 6 Month 5 Year IV 50 100 micrograms/kg Injection
5 sedative 6 Year 12 Year IV 25 50 micrograms/kg Injection
6 sedative IV 2 2.5 mg Injection
7 Intensive care IV infusion 10 50 microgram/kg Injection
8 Induction of anaesthesia over 7 Year Slow IV infusion 150 micrograms/kg Injection

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1085   Edition : 38, Martindale    Page : 1086   Edition : 38,
►  Side Effect : drowsiness, Sedation, muscle weakness, ataxia, Pain, tenderness, thrombophlebitis, hiccup, vertigo, headache, Confusion, Depression, slurred speech, dysarthria, changes in libido, tremor, visual disturbances, urinary retention, incontinence, gastrointestinal disturbance, changes in salivation, amnesia, , Serious, sometimes fatal, infections have occurred in women undergoing abortion,, decreased appetite, fatigue, Dizziness,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1087,1065   Edition : 38, Martindale    Page : 2139   Edition : 38,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Midazolam is with Alcohol, Antidepressant , sedating antihistamine , Antipsychotics, General anaesthetics , Hypnotic , Sedatives, opioid analgesics,  Lorazepam , Oxazepam , Temazepam ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1087,1068   Edition : 38,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Enhanced sedation or respiratory and cardiovascular depression may occur if other benzodiazepines are given with other drugs that have CNS depressant properties; these include alcohol, antidepressants, sedative antihistamines, antipsychotics, general anaesthetics, other hypnotics or sedatives, and opioid analgesics. The metabolism of most banzodiazipines is mediated primarily by the cytochrome P450 system, particularly the isoenzymes CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Hence, adverse effects may also be produce by use with drugs that inhibit or induce or metabolized by these isoenzymes. Benzodiazepines such as Midazolam that are metabolised primarily by hepatic microsomal oxidation may be more susceptible to pharmacokinetic changes than those eliminated primarily by glucuronide conjugation such as Lorazepam, oxazepam and temazepam, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1087,1068   Edition : 38,


►  Contraindication : narrow-angle glaucoma,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 238   Edition : 3,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Potentiate GABA-mediated inhibition to increase chloride current through the channel.,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 238   Edition : 3,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Poppy seed with Another pathway, Bitter Almond with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Sedative Property --- (Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )
  • Sedative Property --- (PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.vitorrentz.in/search/Text+Book+Of+Pharmacognosy, +C.+K.+Kokate, +A.P.+Purohit, +S.B.+Gokhale,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- GINKGO BILOBA with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer, CURCUMIN with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer, ST JOHNS WORT with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Michael, Z. (2007). Hand book of nutrition. New York: Thieme Stuttgart
  • Url_Pathway Entry_date Action 1 Medroxy Progesterone Acetate Wild yam i.e.jangali ratalu same pathway Wild yum having diosgenin which is precursor for the production of progesterone. Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharm
  • Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: Pharmaceutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- http://197.14.51.10:81/pmb/AGROALIMENTAIRE/Handbook%20of%20Nutrition.pdf, https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf, https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- VALERIAN with Valerian cause sedative effect with midazolam.,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: Pharmaceutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1088   Edition : 38,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   Short elimination half-life of about 2 hours although half-lives longer than 7 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1088   Edition : 38,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   20 minutes,    Max value :-   60 minutes,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1088   Edition : 38,