Midazolam is a Medicine belongs to Sedative-hypnotics/ benzodiazepines group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1115   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : Hypnovel

  ►  Strength : Injection with 1  mg/ml, Injection with 5  mg/ml, Syrup with 2  mg/ml,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 446   Edition : 12,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, rectal, IV, IM, buccal,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1113   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 sedative IV 2 2.5 mg Injection 5 to 10 min before the stat of the procedure.
2 Premedicant in surgical procedures IV 5 mg Injection
3 Induction of anaesthesia IV infusion 150 250 micrograms/kg Injection
4 Insomnia Oral 7.5 15 mg o.n.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1114   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 sedative 1 Month 18 Year Oral 500 micrograms/kg Syrup
2 Sedation 6 Month 10 Year buccal 200 300 micrograms/kg Tablet
3 sedative 10 Year 18 Year buccal 6 7 mg Tablet
4 sedative 6 Month 5 Year IV 50 100 micrograms/kg Injection
5 sedative 6 Year 12 Year IV 25 50 micrograms/kg Injection

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1114   Edition : 37, Martindale    Page : 1085   Edition : 38, Martindale    Page : 1086   Edition : 38,
►  Side Effect : drowsiness, Sedation, muscle weakness, ataxia, Pain, tenderness, thrombophlebitis, hiccup, vertigo, headache, Confusion, Depression, slurred speech, dysarthria, changes in libido, tremor, visual disturbances, urinary retention, incontinence, gastrointestinal disturbance, changes in salivation, amnesia, jaundice, blood disorder, hypersenstivity, paradoxical excitation,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1090,1112   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Midazolam is with Zonisamide , , Propafenone Hydrochloride , , Testosterone , Baclofen , Ethinylestradiol , Lorazepam , Oxazepam , Temazepam , morphine,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1093,1112   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Enhanced sedation or respiratory and cardiovascular depression may occur if diazepam or other benzodiazepines are given with other drugs that have CNSdepressant properties; these include alcohol, antidepressants, sedative antihistamines, antipsychotics, general anaesthetics, other hypnotics or sedatives, and opioid analgesics. Benzodiazepines such as alprazolam, diazepam, and midazolam that are metabolised primarily by hepatic microsomal oxidation may be more susceptible to pharmacokinetic changes than those eliminated primarily by glucuronide conjugation such as lorazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam. An intravenous bolus injection of midazolam in children already receiving intravenous morphine after cardiac surgery produced an undesirable transient fall in cardiac output.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1093   Edition : 37,


►  Contraindication : narrow-angle glaucoma,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 238   Edition : 3,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Potentiate GABA-mediated inhibition to increase chloride current through the channel.,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 238   Edition : 3,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Poppy seed with Another pathway, Bitter Almond with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Sedative Property --- (Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )
  • Sedative Property --- (PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.vitorrentz.in/search/Text+Book+Of+Pharmacognosy, +C.+K.+Kokate, +A.P.+Purohit, +S.B.+Gokhale,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- GINKGO BILOBA with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer, CURCUMIN with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer, ST JOHNS WORT with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Michael, Z. (2007). Hand book of nutrition. New York: Thieme Stuttgart
  • Url_Pathway Entry_date Action 1 Medroxy Progesterone Acetate Wild yam i.e.jangali ratalu same pathway Wild yum having diosgenin which is precursor for the production of progesterone. Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharm
  • Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: Pharmaceutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- http://197.14.51.10:81/pmb/AGROALIMENTAIRE/Handbook%20of%20Nutrition.pdf, https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf, https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- VALERIAN with Valerian cause sedative effect with midazolam.,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: Pharmaceutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1113   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   1.5 hours,    Max value :-   2.5 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1113   Edition : 37,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   0.33 hours,    Max value :-   1 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1113   Edition : 37,