Palonosetron is a Medicine belongs to Gastrointestinal drug group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1875   Edition : 38  

  ►   Brandname : Palnox,Palzen,Palonew, Aloxi, Jiouting
  ►  Strength : Capsule with 0.5 mg.  Injection with 0.05 mg/ml. 

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 1111   Edition : 12  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : IV, Oral
Reference :-   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 1111   Edition : 12  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting IV 250 micrograms Injection i.e associated with initial and repeat courses of moderately or highly emetogenic cancer chemotherapy; drug given over 30 seconds and about 30 minutes before chemotherapy.
2 Postoperative nausea and vomiting IV 75 micrograms Injection Given (for up to 24 hours after surgery); as a single dose (given above); drug dose given over 10 seconds immediately before the induction of anaesthesia. Efficacy beyond 24 hours has not been demonstrated.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1875   Edition : 38  

Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  

Ref :- Book :
►  Side Effect : Headache, Constipation, Intestinal obstruction , Diarrhea, Fatigue, Abdominal pain, Sensation of flushing, Hiccup, Transient rise in liver enzymes, Hypersensitivity reactions, Anaphylaxis, Rashes, Urticaria, Angioedema, Bronchospasm, Dyspnoea, chest pain, Arrhythmia, Hypotension, Tachycardia, Bradycardia, Dizziness, Blurred Vision, Transient blindness, Seizure, Movement disorders
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1911,1913,1914   Edition : 37.  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Palonosetron is with , ,  Phenytoin , Rifampicin , Carbamazapine
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1874,1875   Edition : 38.  

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Palonosetron does not appear to induce or inhibit the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme system, but it is itself metabolised by multiple hepatic isoenzymes, including CYP3A4, CYP2D6, and CYP1A2. US licensed product information states that inducers or inhibitors of these isoenzymes may change the clearance and halflife of Palonosetron, but that on the basis of available data, no dose adjustments are recommended. UK licensed product information states that enzyme inhibition of one isoenzyme is usually compensated for by other enzymes and should result in little or no significant change in overall palonosetron clearance or dose requirement. Potent inducers of CYP3A4, such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, and rifampicin, have been reported to increase palonosetron clearance and reduce palonosetron plasma concentrations. Because of the reports of transient ECG changes in some patients taking 5-HT3 antagonists, there is a theoretical need for caution if given with other drugs that prolong QT-intervalor cardiotoxic drugs such as anthracyclines; however, clinical evidence of a significant interaction seems to be mostly lacking.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1874,1875   Edition : 38.  

►  Contraindication : Patients who had a hypersensitive reaction to any member of this drug class
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1873,1875   Edition : 38.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   There is evidence that effects at peripheral and central sites contribute to the efficacy of palonosetron. 5-HT3 receptors are present in several critical sites involved in emesis, including vagal afferents, the STN (which receives signals from vagal afferents), and the area postrema itself. Serotonin is released by the enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine in response to chemotherapeutic agents and may stimulate vagal afferents (via 5-HT3 receptors) to initiate the vomiting reflex. However, the highest concentrations of 5-HT3 receptors in the CNS are found in the STN and CTZ, and palonosetron also may suppress nausea and vomiting by acting at these sites.
Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 1341   Edition : 12.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product

​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- NA

DIETARY Substance Interactions

​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA

ContraIndication DIETARY Substance

​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

►   Route of Elimination :   Renal
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1914   Edition : 37.  

►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   40 hours,    Max value :-   NA
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1914   Edition : 37.  

►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   5 hours,    Max value :-   NA
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1914   Edition : 37.