Pentamidine is a Medicine belongs to Antiprotozoals group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 934   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : NebuPent,Pentacarinat,Pentam

  ►  Strength : Injection with 300  mg,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 935   Edition : 12,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : IM, IV,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 932   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 African trypanosomiasis IM or IV 4 mg/kg Due to T. b. gambiense; drug given daily or on alternate days by i.m injection or i.v infusion to a total of 7 to 10 doses.
2 Visceral Leishmaniasis IM 4 mg/kg Injection t.i.w. Due to Leishmania braziliensis or L. aethiopica; drug given for 5 to 25 weeks or longer.
3 Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis IM 4 mg/kg Injection t.i.w. Due to Leishmania braziliensis or L. aethiopica; drug given for 5 to 25 weeks or longer.
4 Cutaneous leishmaniasis IM 3 4 mg/kg Injection Due to L. aethiopica or L. guyanensis: given once or twice weekly.
5 Pneumocystis pneumonia IM or IV 4 mg/kg o.d. Given for 14 days or longer, by i.m injection or preferably slow intravenous infusion.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 933   Edition : , Martindale    Page : 933   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Visceral Leishmaniasis IM or IV 4 mg/kg Injection
2 Cutaneous leishmaniasis IM or IV 2 3 mg/kg Injection
3 Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia IV 3 4 mg/kg Injection
4 Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia ≥5 Year inhalation 300 mg Aerosol
5 Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection IM 4 mg/kg/day Injection

Ref :- Book : Nelson's textbook of Pediatrics    Page : 1069, 1190, 1192   Edition : 19, Nelson's textbook of Pediatrics    Page : 1069, 1190, 1192   Edition : 37,
►  Organ Affected Nephrotoxicity –(Tubular cell toxicity)  

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Pentamidine' drug in  Acute Pancreatitis  disease, then Please do not use .

►  Side Effect : renal impairment, raised liver enzymes, leucopenia, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, Hyperglycaemia, hypoglycemia, Dizziness, headache, vomiting, breathlessness, tachycardia, Pain, swelling, sterile abscesses, Tissue necrosis, hypocalcaemia, hyperkalaemia, Skin rashes, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, fever, flushing, gastrointestinal effects, nausea, taste disturbances, Confusion, hallucinations, cardiac arrhythmia, fainting,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 932   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Pentamidine is with Amphotericin B , Foscarnet , Erythromycin , Olmesartan medoxomil , Amiodarone , , Phenothiazine, Terfenadine, Didanosine, Stavudine, Zalcitabine,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 933   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Extreme caution is also necessary if pentamidine is given with foscarnet, that can causes hypocalcaemia. There is an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias if pentamidine is given with drugs which prolong the QT interval such as intravenous erythromycin, fluoroquinolones, amiodarone, tricyclic antidepressant, phenothiazine, or terfenadine. There may be an increased risk of pancreatitis when intravenous pentamidine is used with didanosine, stavudine, or zalcitabine and such combinations should be avoided. Pentamidine is structurally-sparing diuretics may result in severe hyperkalaemia. ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 933   Edition : 37,


►  Absolute Contraindication : Renal impairment.  

►  Contraindication : renal impairment,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 932   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Pentamidine, an aromatic diamidine derivative. Pentamidine interference with protozoal DNA and folate transformation and by inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis. ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 933   Edition : 37,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Wintergreen with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Monotropitoside have Anti-biotic property --- ( Duke, J. & Duke, J. (2002). Handbook of medicinal herbs. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. )

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=B_XLBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA822&dq=Handbook+of+medicinal+herbs&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Handbook%20of%20medicinal%20herbs&f=false,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA



    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- FOLATE with Impairs folate metabolism .,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Michael, Z. (2007). Hand book of nutrition. New York: Thieme Stuttgart

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 933   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   6 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 933   Edition : 37,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   2 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 933   Edition : 37,