Perindopril is a Medicine belongs to Cardiovascular drugs group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1467   Edition : 38  

  ►   Brandname : Coversyl, Aceon, Eviper, Indopril, Acertil, Coversum.
  ►  Strength : Tablet with 2 Mg.  Tablet with 4 mg.  Tablet with 8 mg. 

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 224   Edition : 12  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1502   Edition : 37  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 hypertension Oral 4 mg Tablet o.d. Given as erbumine salt or 5 mg of the arginine salt once daily. Since there may be a precipitous fall in blood pressure in some patients when starting therapy with an ACE inhibitor, the first dose should preferably be given at bedtime. However licensed product information for it recommends that doses should be taken in the morning, before food. Hypotension is particularly likely in patients with renovascular hypertension, volume depletion, heart failure, or severe hypertension and in such patients the initial dose may be halved to 2 or 2.5 mg respectively once daily. Patients taking diuretics should have the diuretic withdrawn 2 or 3 days before perindopril is started and resumed later if required; if this is not possible, the initial dose may be halved similarly.
2 Heart failure Oral 2 mg Tablet In the management of heart failure, severe first-dose hypotension on introduction of an ACE inhibitor is common in patients on loop diuretics, but their temporary withdrawal may cause rebound pulmonary oedema. Thus treatment should be initiated with a low dose under close medical supervision. Perindopril is given in an initial dose of 2 mg of the erbumine or 2.5 mg of the arginine salt in the morning.
3 Ischaemic heart disease Oral 4 mg Tablet o.d. Given as erbumine salt for 2 weeks. In the management of patients with ischaemic heart disease perindopril is given in an initial dose of 4 mg (erbumine) or 5 mg (arginine) once daily for 2 weeks, then titrated up to a maintenance dose of 8 or 10 mg respectively once daily if tolerated. Elderly patients should be started on 2 or 2.5 mg once daily for the first week.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1467   Edition : 38  

Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  

Ref :- Book :
►  Side Effect : Hypotension, Dizziness, Fatigue, Headache, Nausea, Gastrointestinal disturbance, Angioedema, Skin rashes, Photosensitivity, Alopecia, Hypersensitivity reactions, Neutropenia, Agranulocytosis, Renal failure, Stomatitis, Abdominal pain, Pancreatitis, Hepatocellular injury, Cholestatic jaundice, Muscle cramp, Paraesthesia, mood changes, Sleep disturbances, impotence, Dry cough, Respiratory symptoms
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1315   Edition : 37.  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Perindopril is with Tenecteplase , Clopamide , Zonisamide , Magnesium/Magnesium Sulphate, Ropivacaine
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1318   Edition : 37.  

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Excessive hypotension may occur when ACE inhibitors are used with diuretics, other antihypertensives, Or other agent including alcohol. An additive hyperkalaemic effect is possible in patients receiving ACE inhibitors with potassiumsparing diuretics, potassium supplements.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1318   Edition : 37.  

►  Contraindication : Renal failure, Pregnancy
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 349   Edition : 3.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   ACE Inhibitors are antihypertensive drugs that act as vasodilators and reduce peripheral resistance. They inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which is involved in the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II stimulates the synthesis and secretion of aldosterone and raises blood pressure via a potent direct vasoconstrictor effect.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1282   Edition : 38.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product

​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Achillea fragrantissima with same pathway.   Rhei Rhizoma with same pathway.   Rhazya stricta with same pathway.   Moringa peregrina with same pathway.  

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Moringa peregrina act as ACE inhibitor. --- (Fahad, M. (2017). Journal Of Medicinal Plants Research., 10(8), 93-99. )
  • Achillea fragrantissima act as ACE inhibitor . --- (Fahad, M. (2017). Journal Of Medicinal Plants Research., 10(8), 93-99. )

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  • DIETARY Substance Interactions

    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- IRON with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer.   POTASSIUM with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor.  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

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    ContraIndication DIETARY Substance

    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- POTASSIUM with Increase the risk of hyperkalemia ..   CAPSICUM with Cause risk of cough .  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Mohan, L. (2013). Antihypertensive Drugs Interaction with Herbal Medicine – Review. International Journal Of Pharmaceutical And Phytopharmacological Research (Eijppr), 3(2), 139-143.
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand

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    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal, Hepatic (Metabolism)
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1502   Edition : 37.   Martindale    Page : 1467   Edition : 38.  

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   elimination of perindoprilat is biphasic with a distribution half-life of about 5 hours and an elimination half-life of 25 to 30 hours or longer.,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1502   Edition : 37.  

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   Peak plasma concentrations of perindoprilat; 3 hours,    Max value :-   4 hours.  
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1467   Edition : 38.