Phenelzine is a Medicine belongs to Antidepressant Agents group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 446   Edition : 38  

  ►   Brandname : Nardil
  ►  Strength : Tablet with 15 mg. 

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 539   Edition : 12  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 442   Edition : 38  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Atypical depression Oral Tablet Phenelzine and other antidepressant MAOIs are used in the treatment of atypical depression, particularly where phobic features or associated anxiety are present, or in patients who have not responded to other antidepressants. The usual initial dose is equivalent to phenelzine 15 mg three times daily; if no response has been obtained after 2 weeks the dosage may be increased to 15 mg four times daily; severely depressed patients in hospital may be given up to 30 mg three times daily. Once a response has been obtained the dosage may be gradually reduced for maintenance therapy; some patients may continue to respond to 15 mg on alternate days. Phenelzine should be withdrawn gradually to reduce the risk of withdrawal symptoms.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 442   Edition : 38  



Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  

Ref :- Book :
►  Side Effect : Dizziness, Somnolence, Orthostatic hypotension, Weight gain, Increased liver aminotransferase level, Serious adverse effects are, Systemic tyramine toxicity from consumption of foods that contain tyramine may lead to, Uncontrolled catecholamine release which can induce a hypertensive crisis characterized by, Headache, Tachycardia, Nausea, Cardiac arrhythmia, And, Stroke, Fever associated with increased muscle tone, Leucopenia, Hepatic failure, Drug-induced lupus, Worsening depression
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 220   Edition : 3.  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Phenelzine is with , , , , , , , , , , , Barbiturates , , , Tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, ,  Dextromethorphan , Buspirone , Guanethidine, Indoramin , Methyldopa , Reserpine, Pethidine/Meperidine , Bupropion , Mirtazapine , Nefazodone, Reboxetine, Trazodone
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 444,445   Edition : 38.  


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  MAOIs when taken with certain foodstuffs, can cause a potentially fatal hypertensive reaction. The hyperadrenergic state resulting from this interaction consisted of three syndromes although significant overlap between them existed: paroxysmal headache of great severity; cardiovascular symptoms with paroxysmal hypertension; and intracerebral haemorrhage and death. Reactions to foods rich in pressor amines such as tyramine can therefore occur in patients being treated with MAOIs, producing hypertensive crises. Cheese, especially aged or matured cheeses, meat or yeast extracts, pickled herrings, sauerkraut, dry sausage, smoked foods, and broad bean pods have caused such reactions. Patients should be warned not to eat any of these foods while being treated with an MAOI and for at least 14 days after its discontinuation. Any protein- containing food such as meat, fish, or game subject to hydrolysis, fermentation, pickling, smoking, or spoilage could contain tyramine derived from tyrosine as a result of these processes or of deterioration. Patients taking MAOIs should therefore be advised to eat protein-containing foods only if fresh. Alcoholic beverages, including wines, beers, and drinks that are de-alcoholised or are low in alcohol contain variable amounts of tyramine and are best avoided. MAOIs inhibit the metabolism of some amine drugs (notably indirect-acting sympathomimetics), which can lead to dangerous enhancement of their pressor effects. Moreover, they have an additive effect with serotonergic drugs which may result in the serotonin syndrome. The danger of an interaction persists for at least 14 days after treatment with an MAOI has been stopped. Severe hypertensive reactions due to enhancement of pressor activity have followed the use of sympathomimetics such as amfetamines, dopamine, ephedrine, levodopa, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine, and pseudoephedrine. Reactions may also follow the use of anorectics and stimulants with sympathomimetic activity such as fenfluramine, methylphenidate, pemoline, and phentermine. There have been case reports of fatalities in patients who took cough preparations containing dextromethorphan. There is no clinical evidence of dangerous interactions between local anaesthetic preparations containing adrenaline and MAOIs although they could occur if the preparation was accidentally given into a vein. Significant rises in blood pressure have been reported after the use of buspirone with MAOIs. Inhibition of drug-metabolising enzymes by MAOIs may enhance the effects of barbiturates and possibly other hypnotics, hypoglycaemics, and possibly antimuscarinics. Alcohol metabolism may be altered and its effects enhanced. Some antihypertensives with direct actions on the sympathetic nervous system, such as guanethidine, indoramin, methyldopa, and, historically, reserpine, are suggested to be contra-indicated or used with great caution; both hypotensive and hypertensive reactions have been suggested. Giving pethidine and possibly other opioid analgesics to patients taking an MAOI has also been associated with very severe and sometimes fatal reactions. When it is considered essential to use an opioid analgesic, one that does not inhibit serotonin reuptake should be chosen. MAOIs should not generally be given to patients receiving tricyclic antidepressants, SSRIs, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), bupropion, mirtazapine, nefazodone, reboxetine, or trazodone. An appropriate drug-free interval should elapse between stopping one type of antidepressant and starting another. An MAOI should not be started until at least 1 to 5 weeks after stopping a tricyclic antidepressant.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 444,445   Edition : 38.  


►  Contraindication : Concomitant use of sympathomimetics, bupropion, buspirone, guanethidine, other MAOIs, serotonergic drugs, methyldopa, L-DOPA, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, phenylalanine, CNS depressants, narcotics, dextromethorphan, excessive coffee or chocolate intake, foods with high tyramine content ( cheese, beer, wine, pickled herring, yogurt, liver, yeast extract), Liver disease, Pheochromocytoma, Heart failure, General anesthesia, Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictors
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 220   Edition : 3.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) inhibit the action of monoamine oxidase, the enzyme responsible for the metabolism of several biogenic amines. Monoamine oxidase exists in two forms, type A and type B. Monoamine oxidase type A preferentially deaminates adrenaline, noradrenaline, and serotonin whereas monoamine oxidase type B preferentially metabolises benzylamine and phenylethylamine; dopamine and tyramine are de-aminated by both forms of the enzyme. • The traditional MAOIs such as phenelzine, iproniazid, isocarboxazid, and tranylcypromine are inhibitors of both types; apart from tranylcypromine, which produces a less prolonged inhibition of the enzyme than phenelzine, all are hydrazine derivatives and bind irreversibly. Antidepressant activity appears to reside mainly with inhibition of monoamine oxidase type A although the mode of action of these drugs in depression is not fully understood.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 442   Edition : 38.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Amur Cortree with same pathway.   Bakuchi with same pathway.   Licorice with same pathway.   Babchi with same pathway.   Babchi with same pathway.   Dictamnus albus with same pathway.   Ginkgo biloba with same pathway.   Zanthoxylum schinifolium i.e.Sichuan pepper. with same pathway.   Hypericum with same pathway.   Netmeg with same pathway.   Curcumin with same pathway.   Madagascar periwinkle with same pathway.   Vincristine with same pathway.   Kava kava with same pathway.   Uncaria rhynchophylla with same pathway.   Polygonium multiflora with same pathway.  

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Monoamine oxide inhibitor . --- (Mazzio, E. "High Throughput Screening To Identify Natural Human Monoamine Oxidase B Inhibitors". 27.6 (2013): 818-828. Web. 16 Nov. 2016. )
  • Harmine active constituent of passion flower act as monoamine oxidase inhibitor. --- (Rajput., Mithul Singh. "Natural Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor ; A Review.". Journal of Pharmacy Research 3.3 (2010): 482-485-. Print. )

  •   ►  URL --
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3521852/ .
  • https://www.researchgate.net/publication/41805982_Natural_Monoamine_oxidase_inhibitors_A_Review .

  • DIETARY Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- VITAMIN B6 with Decrease in Nutrient Level.  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf


    ContraIndication DIETARY Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- EPHEDRA with It contains the chemical ephedrine which may interact with Phenelzine , causing potentially dangerous changes to blood pressure . .   EPHEDRA with It increases the side effect of drug as insomnia , headache and tremor ..   CHEESE with Aged cheese rich in tyramine should be avoided ..   YEAST with Yeast rich in tyramine should be avoided ..   FAVA BEANS I.E. BAKLA with Fava beans rich in tyramine should be avoided ..   RED WINE with Red wine rich in tyramine should be avoided ..   PICKLED FISH with Pickled fish rich in tyramine should be avoided ..  

      ►  Reference :-
  • YAHEYA, MOHAMMAD. "DRUG-FOOD INTERACTIONS AND ROLE OF PHARMACIST". Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2.4 (2009): n. pag. Print.
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • YAHEYA, MOHAMMAD. "DRUG-FOOD INTERACTIONS AND ROLE OF PHARMACIST". Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2.4 (2009): n. pag. Print.

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf
    http://ajpcr.com/Vol2Issue4/226.pdf

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 446   Edition : 38.  

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   2 to 4 hours after ingestion,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 446   Edition : 38.