Phenobarbital is a Medicine belongs to Antiepileptics group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 539   Edition : 37   Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 38  

  ►   Brandname : Luminal, Barbee, Emgard
  ►  Strength : Tablet with 15 mg.  Tablet with 16 mg.  Tablet with 30 mg.  Tablet with 60 mg.  Tablet with 90 mg.  Tablet with 100 mg.  Capsule with 16 mg.  Elixir with 15/5 mg/ml.  Elixir with 20/5 mg/ml.  Injection with 30 mg/ml.  Injection with 60 mg/ml.  Injection with 65 mg/ml.  Injection with 130 mg/ml. 

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 387   Edition : 12  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : IV, Oral
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 37  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Acute seizures IV 200 mg Injection Given for emergency management of seizures including status epilepticus; repeated after 6 hours if necessary. In the UK, for the control of status epilepticus, doses of 10 mg/kg to a maximum of 1 g may be given intravenously.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 535   Edition : 38  



Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 All types of epilepsy Oral / i.v
2 All types of epilepsy 1 Month 12 Year Oral
3 Epilepsy 12 Year 18 Year Oral 60 180 mg o.d.
4 Status epilecticus IV Injection
5 Status epilecticus IV Injection

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 536   Edition : 38  
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Phenobarbital' drug in Ataxia disease, then Please avoid barbiturates and benzodiazepines   if he ever suffered from Seizure disease.
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Phenobarbital' drug in  congenital erythropoietic porphyria  disease, then Please may precipitate porphyria .

►  Side Effect : Agitation, Ataxia, Dizziness, Decreased libido, Depression, Confusion, Sedation, Serious adverse effects are, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Bone marrow suppression, Hepatotoxicity, Osteopenia
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 238   Edition : 3.  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Phenobarbital is with , Alcohol,  Valproic acid(sodium valproate), Phenytoin
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 536.2   Edition : 37.   Martindale    Page : 537   Edition : 38.  


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  There are complex interactions between antiepileptics, and toxicity may be enhanced without a corresponding increase in antiepileptic activity. Such interactions are very variable and unpredictable and plasma monitoring is often advisable with combination therapy. Valproate and phenytoin have been reported to cause rises in phenobarbital (and primidone) concentrations in plasma. The effects of phenobarbital and other barbiturates are enhanced by other CNS depressants including alcohol. Phenobarbital and other barbiturates may reduce the activity of many drugs by increasing the rate of metabolism through induction of drug-metabolising enzymes in liver microsomes.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 537   Edition : 38.  


►  Contraindication : Severe liver dysfunction, Porphyria., Respiratory disease
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 238   Edition : 3.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   The exact mechanism of action of phenobarbital is unknown, but enhancement of inhibitory processes and diminution of excitatory transmission probably contribute significantly. Recent data indicate that phenobarbital may selectively suppress abnormal neurons, inhibiting the spread and suppressing firing from the foci. Like phenytoin, phenobarbital suppresses high-frequency repetitive firing in neurons in culture through an action on Na + conductance, but only at high concentrations.
Ref :-   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 411   Edition : 12.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Hanbane i.e.Hyoscyamus Nigar with .   Valerian with Another pathway.  

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Tropane alkaloids, have antipsycotic effect --- (: Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )
  • Valeremic acid have Anticonvulsant --- (Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )

  •   ►  URL --
  • https://books.google.co.in/books?id=KwYIsLRyDp4C&pg=SL1-PA47&dq=Kokate .
  • +C.K.+Pharmaco .
  • http://www.vitorrentz.in/search/Text+Book+Of+Pharmacognosy .
  • +C.+K.+Kokate .
  • +A.P.+Purohit .
  • +S.B.+Gokhale .

  • DIETARY Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA VITAMIN E with Lower blood vitamin E levels ..   VITAMIN D with Long -term anti-convulsant treatment appears to interfere with vitamin D activity , which might lead to softening of bones . .  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf
    http://www.otto-wipfel.co.uk/otto/supplements-medication/DRUG-HERB-VITAMINS-INTERACTIONS-A-Z_Guide.pdf


    ContraIndication DIETARY Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- ALCOHOL with Drinking alcoholic beverage while taking alprazolam may increase side effects such as drowsiness , confusion , and dizziness ..  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 37.  

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   75 to 120 hours in adults but is greatly prolonged in neonates, and shorter (about 21 to 75 hours) in children.,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 38.  

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   peak concentrations are reached in about 2 hours after oral doses and within 4 hours of intramuscular doses.,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 38.