Phenobarbital is a Medicine belongs to Antiseizure drugs group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 539   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : Luminal

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 15  mg, Tablet with 16  mg, Tablet with 30  mg, Tablet with 60  mg, Tablet with 90  mg, Tablet with 100  mg, Capsule with 16  mg, Elixir with 15/5  mg/ml, Elixir with 20/5  mg/ml, Injection with 30  mg/ml, Injection with 60  mg/ml, Injection with 65  mg/ml, Injection with 130  mg/ml,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 387   Edition : 12,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : IV, Oral,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Acute seizures IM 200 mg Injection Given for emergency management of seizures; repeated after 6 hours if necessary.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Epilepsy >1 Day >28 Day slow i.v 20 mg/kg Injection
2 Epilepsy 1 Month 12 Year Oral 1 1.5 mg/kg b.d.
3 Epilepsy 12 Year 18 Year Oral 60 180 mg
4 Status epilecticus >1 Day 12 Year IV 20 mg/kg Injection
5 Status epilecticus 12 Year 18 Year IV 20 mg/kg Injection

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 37,
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Phenobarbital' drug in Ataxia disease, then Please avoid barbiturates and benzodiazepines   if he ever suffered from Seizure disease.
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Phenobarbital' drug in  congenital erythropoietic porphyria  disease, then Please may precipitate porphyria .

►  Side Effect : agitation, ataxia, confusion in elderly, Irritability, megaloblastic anaemia, nystagmus, Sedation,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1825   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Phenobarbital is with Valproic acid(sodium valproate), Phenytoin ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 536.2   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Valproate and phenytoin have been reported to cause rises in phenobarbital (and primidone) concentrations in plasma.The effects of phenobarbital and other barbiturates are enhanced by other CNS depressants including alcohol. Phenobarbital and other barbiturates may reduce the activity of many drugs by increasing the rate of metabolism through induction of drug-metabolising enzymes in liver microsomes,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 536   Edition : 37,


►  Contraindication : Respiratory or CNS depression, porphyria., respiratory depression,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 537   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Valproate and phenytoin have been reported to cause rises in phenobarbital (and primidone) concentrations in plasma.The effects of phenobarbital and other barbiturates are enhanced by other CNS depressants including alcohol. Phenobarbital and other barbiturates may reduce the activity of many drugs by increasing the rate of metabolism through induction of drug-metabolising enzymes in liver microsomes,
Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 593,594   Edition : 12,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Hanbane i.e.Hyoscyamus Nigar with , Valerian with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Tropane alkaloids, have antipsycotic effect --- (: Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )
  • Valeremic acid have Anticonvulsant --- (Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=KwYIsLRyDp4C&pg=SL1-PA47&dq=Kokate, +C.K.+Pharmaco, http://www.vitorrentz.in/search/Text+Book+Of+Pharmacognosy, +C.+K.+Kokate, +A.P.+Purohit, +S.B.+Gokhale,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- with Long -term anticonvulsant treatment decrease blood levels of biotin ., VITAMIN E with Lower blood vitamin E levels ., VITAMIN D with Long -term anti-convulsant treatment appears to interfere with vitamin D activity , which might lead to softening of bones . , CALCIUM with Decrease in Nutrient Level, FOLIC ACID with Decrease in Nutrient Level, L-CARNITINE with Decrease in Nutrient Level, VITAMIN A with Decrease in Nutrient Level, VITAMIN B12 with Decrease in Nutrient Level, VITAMIN B6 with Decrease in Nutrient Level, VITAMIN B6 with Decrease in Nutrient Level, ST JOHNS WORT with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: Pharmaceutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf, http://www.otto-wipfel.co.uk/otto/supplements-medication/DRUG-HERB-VITAMINS-INTERACTIONS-A-Z_Guide.pdf, https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- ALCOHOL with Drinking alcoholic beverage while taking alprazolam may increase side effects such as drowsiness , confusion , and dizziness .,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   75 hours,    Max value :-   120 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 37,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   2 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 538   Edition : 37,