Phenytoin is a Medicine belongs to Antiseizure drugs group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 546   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : Dilantin,Phenytek

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 50  mg, Capsule with 100  mg, Suspension with 125/5  mg/ml, Injection with 50  mg/ml,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 427   Edition : 12,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : IV, Oral,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 545   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Epilepsy Oral 150 300 mg Given daily as a single dose or in divided doses.
2 Tonic-clonic status epilepticus slow i.v 10 15 mg/kg Injection Treatment begun with a benzodiazepine than phenytoin is given with a uniform rate of not more than 50 mg/minute.
3 Seizures associated with neurosurgery IM 100 200 mg Injection Given for the prevention and treatment of seizures in patients who have not previously taken phenytoin sodium; at 4-hourly intervals during surgery.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 545   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Epilepsy Oral 5 mg/kg
2 Seizures associated with neurosurgery or trauma slow i.v 15 20 mg/kg Injection
3 Status epilepticus slow i.v 15 20 mg/kg Injection

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 545   Edition : 37,
►  Organ Affected Skeletal system (Osteoporosis)  

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Phenytoin' drug in  MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIAS  disease, then Please Do not use .

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Phenytoin' drug in  Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy  disease, then Please exacerbates myoclonus .

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Phenytoin' drug in  Epilapsy  disease, then Please Contraindication: Pregnancy .

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Phenytoin' drug in ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS disease, then Please should be avoided   if he ever suffered from Siezure disorders disease.
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Phenytoin' drug in Acute Hepatitis disease, then Please Can cause liver injury   if he ever suffered from Siezure disorders disease.
►  Side Effect : behavioural changes, Cardiac arrhythmias, Discolouration, Distal limb edema, gingival hyperplasia, Gynaecomastia, osteomalacia, Pain, seizure, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, glycosuria, Hirsutism, hyperglycemia, megaloblastic anaemia,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1825   Edition : 37, Martindale    Page : 539   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Phenytoin is with Warfarin , liraglutide , Carbamazapine , Lidocaine ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 539.2   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  A potentially more serious type of interaction may occur because phenytoin metabolism is saturable: toxic concentrations of phenytoin can develop in patients given drugs that inhibit phenytoin metabolism even to quite a minor degree. Phenytoin itself is also a potent enzyme inducer, and induces the metabolism of a number of drugs, including some antibacterials, anticoagulants, corticosteroids, quinidine, and sex hormones (notably, oral contraceptives). The hypotensive properties of dopamine and the cardiac depressant properties of drugs such as lidocaine may be dangerously enhanced by intravenous phenytoin,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 539   Edition : 37,


►  Absolute Contraindication : Intra-arterial injection must be avoided. Phenytoin should not be given intravenously to patients with sinus bradycardia   heart block   or Stokes-Adams syndrome   skin rash   severe leucopenia.   

►  Contraindication : hepatic impairment, Sinus bradycardia, heart block , Porphyria, pregnancy,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 541   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   It alters Na, K and Ca conductance, membrane potential and the concentration of amino acids and the Neurotransmitters NE, ACH and GABA.The major action of Phenytoin is to block sodium channels and inhibits the generation of rapidly repetitive action potentials,
Ref :-   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 407   Edition : 12,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Valerian with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Valeremic acid have Anticonvulsant --- (Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.vitorrentz.in/search/Text+Book+Of+Pharmacognosy, +C.+K.+Kokate, +A.P.+Purohit, +S.B.+Gokhale,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- VITAMIN B12 with Decrease in Nutrient Level, VITAMIN B6 with Decrease in Nutrient Level, GINKGO BILOBA with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor, ST JOHNS WORT with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Williamson, E. (2009). Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interaction .. London: Pharmacutical press.
  • Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: Pharmaceutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.otto-wipfel.co.uk/otto/supplements-medication/DRUG-HERB-VITAMINS-INTERACTIONS-A-Z_Guide.pdf, https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- VITAMIN B6 with Interect with anticonvulsins, FOLIC ACID with Interect with anticonvulsins, FOLIC ACID with cause seisures in patient taking phenytoin .,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Williamson, E. (2009). Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interaction .. London: Pharmacutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20, https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 545   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   22 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 545   Edition : 37,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   nf,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book :    Page :    Edition : ,