Ramipril is a Medicine belongs to Angiotensin conveting enzyme inhibitors group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1521   Edition : 37, Martindale    Page : 1521   Edition : 37,    Page :   Edition : ,

  ►   Brandname : Altace,Tritace,Cardace,Hopecard,Preface,R-Pril,Ramcor,Ramipres,Sclerace,Prilace, Tritace, Delix, Ramiclair,Ramistar

  ►  Strength : Capsule with 1.25  mg, Capsule with 2.5  mg, Capsule with 5  mg, Capsule with 10  mg, Tablet with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 224   Edition : 12, Martindale    Page : 1521   Edition : 37,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1521   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 hypertension Oral 2.5 mg o.d. (or 1.25 mg in those on diuretics or otherwise at risk of profound hypotension). Since there may be a precipitous fall in blood pressure when starting therapy with an ACE inhibitor, the first dose should preferably be given at bedtime. The usual maintenance dose is 2.5 to 5 mg daily as a single dose, although up to 10 mg daily may be required. In USA an initial dose of 2.5 mg once daily in hypertensive patients not taking a diuretics and a maintenance dose of 2.5 to 20 mg daily, as a single dose or in two divided doses, have been suggested.
2 Heart failure Oral 1.25 mg o.d. Ramipril is given in an initial dose of 1.25 mg once daily. The usual maximum dose is 10 mg daily; doses of 2.5 mg or more daily may be taken in 1 or 2 divided doses.
3 Myocardial infarction Oral 2.5 mg b.d. Dose increased after two days to 5 mg twice daily. The usual maintenance dose is 2.5 to 5 mg twice daily
4 Diabetic and non diabetic nephropathy Oral 1.25 mg o.d. Dose: daily may be given, doubled at intervals of 2 weeks to a maintenance dose of 5 mg once daily
5 Prophylaxis of cardiovascular events Oral 2.5 mg o.d. The dose should be increased, if tolerated, to 5 mg once daily after 1 week, then to the usual maintenance dose of 10 mg once daily after a further 3 weeks

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1521   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Chronic renal disease 2 Year 20 Year Oral 1.5 mg/m2 o.d.
2 Hypertension 2 Year 20 Year Oral 1.5 mg/m2 o.d.
3 Proteinuria 2 Year 20 Year Oral 1.5 mg/m2 o.d.

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1521   Edition : 37,
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Ramipril' drug in mitral stenosis disease, then Please be used with caution   if he ever suffered from acute kidney injury disease.
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Ramipril' drug in  acute kidney injury   disease, then Please be avoided .

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Ramipril' drug in  preeclampsia  disease, then Please Contraindication : pregnancy .

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Ramipril' drug in  pre eclampsia  disease, then Please Contraindication : pregnancy .

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Ramipril' drug in heart failure disease, then Please use with caution   if he ever suffered from acute kidney injury disease.
►  Side Effect : hypotension, Dizziness, fatigue, headache, nausea, Gastrointestinal disturbances, stroke, tachycardia, palpitations, chest pain, Increasing blood concentrations of urea and creatinine, hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia, dry cough, upper respiratory tract symptoms, angioedema, Bradykinin, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, photosensitivity, alopecia, hypersensitivity reactions, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, stomatitis, abdominal pain, Pancreatitis, hepatocellular injury, cholestatic jaundice, muscle cramp, paraesthesia, mood disturbances, Sleep disturbances, impotence,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1315,1520   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Ramipril is with , Alcohol, Potassium -Sparing Diuretics , , ,  Cidofovir , Indomethacin ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1318,1520   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Excessive hypotension may occur when ACE inhibitors are used with diuretics, other antihypertensives, or other agents, including alcohol, that lower blood pressure. An additive hyperkalaemic effect is possible in patients receiving ACE inhibitors with potassiumsparing diuretics, potassium supplements (including potassium-containing salt substitutes), or other drugs that can cause hyperkalaemia (such as ciclosporin or indometacin), and serum-potassium concentrations should be monitored. Potassium-sparing diuretics and potassium supplements should generally be stopped before starting ACE inhibitors in patients with heart failure.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1318,1520   Edition : 37,


►  Contraindication : history of angioedema, bilateral renal artery stenosis, renal failure, Pregnancy,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 349   Edition : 3,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Inhibition of ACE decreases conversion of angiotensin (AT) I to (AT) II, and thereby decreases arteriolar vasoconstriction, aldosterone synthesis, renal proximal tubule NaCl reabsorption, and ADH release. ACE inhibitors also inhibit the degradation of bradykinin, and thereby increase vasodilation.,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 349   Edition : 3,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Rye with Another pathway, Celery Seed Oil with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Anti hypertensive effect --- (Duck, J. (2002). Hand Book Of Medicinal Herbs (2nd ed.). America: CRC. )
  • Anti hypertensive effect --- ( Moghadam, M., Imenshahidi, M., & Mohajeri, S. (2013). Antihypertensive Effect of Celery Seed on Rat Blood Pressure in Chronic Administration. Journal Of Medicinal Food, 16(6), 558-563. )

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=B_XLBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA822&dq=Hand+Book+Of+Medicinal+Herbs+(2nd+ed.)&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Hand%20Book%20Of%20Medicinal%20Herbs%20(2nd%20ed.)&f=false, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3684138/,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- POTASSIUM with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor, IRON with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer, ZINC with Decrease in Nutrient Level,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.otto-wipfel.co.uk/otto/supplements-medication/DRUG-HERB-VITAMINS-INTERACTIONS-A-Z_Guide.pdf, http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- POTASSIUM with Increase the risk of hyperkalemia ., CAPSICUM with Cause risk of cough ,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Mohan, L. (2013). Antihypertensive Drugs Interaction with Herbal Medicine – Review. International Journal Of Pharmaceutical And Phytopharmacological Research (Eijppr), 3(2), 139-143.

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20, http://eijppr.com/vol3-issue2/eIJPPR-2013-3-2-139-143.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Biliary, Fecal, Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1520   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   13 hours,    Max value :-   17 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page :    Edition : ,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   2 hours,    Max value :-   4 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1520   Edition : 37,