Ritonavir is a Medicine belongs to Antiviral group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1001   Edition : 37  

  ►   Brandname : Reromune, Norvir
  ►  Strength : Capsule with 100 mg.  Solution with 80 mg/ml. 

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 889   Edition : 12  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1000   Edition : 37  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 HIV infection and AIDS Oral 600 mg Dose: Given with food. In order to minimise nausea, ritonavir may be started at a dose of 300 mg twice daily and gradually increased over a period of up to 14 days by 100 mg twice daily to a total of 600 mg twice daily. When used as a pharmacokinetic enhancer ritonavir is given in doses of 100 to 200 mg once or twice daily

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1000-1001   Edition : 37  

Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 HIV infection Oral 250 mg/m2 b.d.

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1001   Edition : 37  
►  Side Effect : Gastrointestinal effects, Abdominal pain, Anorexia, Diarrhoea, Nausea, Vomiting, Headache, Taste disorders, Numbness around the mouth, Fatal pancreatitis, Anxiety, Dizziness, Insomnia, Fever, Dry mouth, Dyspepsia, Flatulence, Local throat irritation, Hyperaesthesia, Mouth ulcer, Malaise, Pharyngitis, pruritus, Rash, Sweating, Vasodilatation, Weight loss, Allergic reactions, Urticaria, Mild skin eruption, Bronchospasm, Angioedema, Decreased haemoglobin levels, Increased eosinophil counts, Raised liver enzymes and uric acid concentrations, Decreased free and total thyroxine concentrations, White blood cell and neutrophil counts may be reduced or increased, Immune reconstitution syndrome, Lipodystrophy, Buffalo hump, Peripheral wasting, Facial wasting, Breast enlargement, Cushingoid appearance, Hypertriglyceridaemia, Hypercholesterolaemia, Insulin resistance, Hyperglycaemia, Hyperlactataemia, Elevated creatine phosphokinase concentrations, Myalgia, Myositis, Osteonecrosis
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1000   Edition : 37.   Martindale    Page : 1000   Edition : .  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Ritonavir is with , , , , ,  Disulfiram, Metronidazole , Alfuzosin , Amiodarone , Bepridil, Propafenone, Quinidine , Astemizole, Terfenadine, Dihydroergotamine, Ergometrine , Ergotamine, Methylergometrine, Cisapride , Clozapine , Pimozide , Midazolam , Triazolam , Lovastatin , Simvastatin , Salmeterol, Pethidine, Piroxicam , Dextropropoxyphene, Bupropion , Fusidic acid , Rifabutin , Diazepam
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1000   Edition : 37.  

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Oral liquid formulations of ritonavir currently contain alcohol and use with disulfiram or metronidazole should be avoided. Ritonavir is contra-indicated with drugs that are highly dependent on CYP3A4 for clearance and for which elevated plasma concentrations are associated with serious or life-threatening events. These drugs include the alpha-adrenergic antagonist alfuzosin, antiarrhythmics (amiodarone, bepridil, encainide, flecainide, propafenone, and quinidine), antihistamines (astemizole and terfenadine), ergot derivatives (dihydroergotamine, ergometrine, ergotamine, and methylergometrine), gastrointestinal prokinetics (cisapride), antipsychotics (clozapine and pimozide), sedatives and hypnotics (midazolam and triazolam), and statins (lovastatin and simvastatin). Owing to the potential for increased serum concentrations of sildenafil, ritonavir is contra-indicated with sildenafil when given at the doses needed for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Similarly, ritonavir may increase serum concentrations of inhaled salmeterol and the combination is not recommended. UK licensed product information also contra-indicates the use of ritonavir with the analgesics pethidine, piroxicam, and dextropropoxyphene, bupropion, fusidic acid, rifabutin, and some other sedatives and hypnotics (clorazepate, diazepam, estazolam, and flurazepam).
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1000   Edition : 37.  

►  Contraindication : Ritonavir (as an antiviral agent or as a pharmacokinetic enhancer) should not be used in patients with decompensated liver disease., Caution is advised in treating patients with haemophilia A and B as reports of spontaneous bleeding have been associated with the use of HIV-protease inhibitors, Patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis, Ritonavir may prolong the PR interval in some patients, in rare cases leading to second-or third-degree AV block; it should therefore be caution in those at increased risk, including patients with underlaying structural heart disease, pre-existing conduction system abnormalities, ischaemic heart disease, or cardiomyopathy.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1000   Edition : 37.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Ritonavir is a selective, competitive, reversible inhibitor of HIV protease. It is active against HIV-1 and, to a lesser extent, HIV-2. It interferes with the formation of essential viral proteins making them incapable of infecting other cells.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1000   Edition : 37.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product

​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Laung with Another pathway.  

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • triterpines have Anti viral activity. --- (Antiviral Properties of Garlic Cloves Juice Compared with Onion Bulbs Juice Against Potato Virus Y (PVY). (2016). Journal Of American Science, 6(8) )

  •   ►  URL --
  • http://www.jofamericanscience.org/journals/am-sci/am0608/39_2830_am0608_302_310.pdf .

  • DIETARY Substance Interactions

    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA

    ContraIndication DIETARY Substance

    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal, Faecal
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1000   Edition : 37.   Martindale    Page : 1001   Edition : 37.  

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   3 hours,    Max value :-   5 hours.  
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1000   Edition : 37.  

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   2 hours,    Max value :-   4 hours.  
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1000   Edition : 37.