Spironolactone is a Medicine belongs to Potassium -Sparing Diuretics group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1539   Edition : 37      Page :   Edition :   

  ►   Brandname : Aldactone, Spirospare, fruselac, Dytor plus, Aldacetone, lasilactone
  ►  Strength : Tablet with 25 mg.  Tablet with 50 Mg.  Tablet with 100 mg. 

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 270   Edition : 12  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1538   Edition : 37  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Oedema Oral 100 mg Tablet Dose given daily, subsequently adjusted as necessary; some patients may require doses of up to 400 mg daily. In hepatic cirrhosis with ascites and oedema, patients with a urinary sodium/ potassium ratio greater than 1 may be given an initial dose of spironolactone 100 mg daily while patients with a ratio of less than 1 may be given initial doses of 200 to 400 mg daily.
2 Presumptive diagnosis of primary hyperaldosteronism Oral 400 mg Tablet
3 Preoperative management of hyperaldosteronism Oral 100 400 mg Tablet

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1538   Edition : 37  

Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Heart failure, oedema, ascites Oral 1 2 mg/kg Tablet
2 Heart failure, oedema, ascites 1 Month 12 Year Oral 1 3 mg/kg Tablet
3 Heart failure, oedema, ascites 12 Year 18 Year Oral 50 100 mg Tablet

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1538   Edition : 37  
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Spironolactone' drug in  acute kidney injury   disease, then Please be used with caution .

Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Spironolactone' drug in  Gynecomastia  disease, then Please not be used .

►  Side Effect : Headache, Drowsiness, Gastrointestinal disturbance, Cramps, Diarrhoea, Ataxia, Mental confusion, Rashes, Hirsutism, Deepening of the voice, Menstrual irregularities, impotence, Transient increases in blood-urea-nitrogen concentrations, Mild acidosis
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1536   Edition : 37.  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Spironolactone is with Angiotensin conveting enzyme inhibitors , Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist, NSAIDS, , ,  Trilostane, Chlorpropamide , Carbenoxolone, Noradrenaline/Norepinephrine
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1537   Edition : 37.  

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  There is an increased risk of hyperkalaemia if spironolactone is given with potassium supplements or with other potassium-sparing diuretics. Hyperkalaemia may occur as well in patients also given ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, NSAIDs, ciclosporin, or trilostane. In patients given spironolactone with NSAIDs or ciclosporin the risk of nephrotoxicity may also be increased. Diuretics may reduce the excretion of lithium and increase the risk of lithium toxicity. Hyponatraemia may occur in patients taking a potassium-sparing diuretic with a thiazide; this risk may be increased in patients given chlorpropamide. Spironolactone may reduce the ulcer-healing properties of carbenoxolone. As with other diuretics, spironolactone may enhance the effects of other antihypertensive drugs and may reduce vascular responses to noradrenaline.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1537   Edition : 37.  

►  Contraindication : Hyperkalaemia, Severe renal impairment, It should be used with care in patients who are at increased risk of developing hyperkalaemia; such patients include the elderly, those with diabetes mellitus, and those with some degree of renal or hepatic impairment. It should also be given with care to patients likely to develop acidosis. Serum electrolytes and blood-urea-nitrogen should be measured periodically.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1536   Edition : 37.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Spironolactone, a steroid with a structure resembling that of the natural adrenocortical hormone aldosterone, acts on the distal portion of the renal tubule as a competitive antagonist of aldosterone. It acts as a potassium- sparing diuretic, increasing sodium and water excretion and reducing potassium excretion
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1538   Edition : 37.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product

​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Tomato with Another pathway.  

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Diuretic properties --- (18. PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S. )

  •   ►  URL --
  • http://www.travolekar.ru/arch/Pdr_for_Herbal_Medicines.pdf .

  • DIETARY Substance Interactions

    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- IRON with Decrease in Nutrient Level.  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf

    ContraIndication DIETARY Substance

    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- FRANGULA I.E. RHAMNUS FRANGULA with frangula interact with carticosteroid ..  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Williamson, E. (2009). Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interaction .. London: Pharmacutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Faecal, Renal
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1537   Edition : 37.  

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   8 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Clinical Pharmacology    Page : 534   Edition : 9.  

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA