Theophylline is a Medicine belongs to bronchodilator group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1263   Edition : 37,    Page :   Edition : ,

  ►   Brandname : Phylobid,Phyloday,Theo PA,Theobid,Nuelin,Slo-Phyllin,Uniphyllin Continus,Accurbron,Aerolate,Asmalix,Aerobin, Afonilum, Afonilum novo, CP-Theo, Euphylong, Novo-Theophyl,Deriphyllin Retard

  ►  Strength : Elixir with 50  mg/5mL, Tablet with 100  mg, Tablet with 200  mg, Tablet with 300  mg, Tablet with 450  mg, Tablet with 100  mg, Tablet with 200  mg, Tablet with 300  mg, Capsule with 100  mg, Capsule with 200  mg, Capsule with 300  mg, Tablet with 400  mg, Tablet with 600  mg, Injection with 0.08  mg/ml, Injection with 1.6  mg/ml, Injection with 2.0  mg/ml, Injection with 3.2  mg/ml, Injection with 4  mg/ml, Oral solution with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 355   Edition : 12, Martindale    Page : 1263   Edition : 37,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IV,
Reference :-   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 355   Edition : 12,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Acute bronchospasm Oral 5 mg/kg In adults not currently taking theophylline or xanthine- containing products a suggested loading dose is 5 mg/kg, to produce an average peak serum concentration of 10 micrograms/mL. Doses should again be reduced in the elderly and those with cor pulmonale, heart failure, or liver disease; smokers may require a higher maintenance dose.
2 Chronic bronchospasm Oral 300 1000 mg Dose: Given daily in divided doses as conventional tablets, capsules, liquid preparations, or modified-release preparations. For conventional dosage forms the divided doses are generally given every 6 to 8 hours.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1262   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Acute severe bronchospasm IV infusion 4 5 mg/kg Injection
2 Acute severe bronchospasm 1 Year 9 Year IV infusion 800 micrograms 1 mg/kg/hour Injection
3 Acute severe bronchospasm 9 Year 12 Year IV infusion 700 770 microgram/kg/hour Injection

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1262   Edition : 37,
►  Side Effect : nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, Gastrointestinal disturbances, insomnia, headache, anxiety, irritability, Restlessness, tremor, palpitations, convulsion, cardiac arrhythmia, Severe hypotension, cardiac arrest,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1255   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Theophylline is with , , Macrolide antibacterials, Quinolones, oral contraceptives, , Beta 2 Agonist, Corticosteroids, Diuretics, Competitive neuromuscular blockers, ,  Allopurinol , Cimetidine , Disulfiram, Fluvoxamine, Tiabendazole, Viloxazine, Phenytoin , Ritonavir, Rifampicin , Sulfinpyrazone, Halothane , Ketamine , Adenosine ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1257   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Theophylline clearance may be reduced by interaction with other drugs including allopurinol, some antiarrhythmics, cimetidine, disulfiram, fluvoxamine, interferon alfa, macrolide antibacterials and quinolones, oral contraceptives, tiabendazole, and viloxazine, and the dose of theophylline may need to be reduced. Phenytoin and some other antiepileptics, ritonavir, rifampicin, and sulfinpyrazone may increase theophylline clearance, and require an increase in dose or dosing frequency of theophylline. Xanthines can potentiate hypokalaemia caused by hypoxia or associated with the use of beta2-adrenoceptor stimulants (beta2 agonists), corticosteroids, and diuretics. There is a risk of synergistic toxicity if theophylline is given with halothane or ketamine, and it may antagonise the effects of adenosine and of competitive neuromuscular blockers; lithium elimination may be enhanced with a consequent loss of effect.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1257   Edition : 37,


►  Contraindication : Theophylline or aminophylline should be given with caution to patients with peptic ulceration, porphyria, hyperthyroidism, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias or other cardiovascular disease, or epilepsy, as these conditions may be exacerbated., They should also be given with caution to patients with heart failure, hepatic dysfunction, acute febrile illness.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1257   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Theophylline is a xanthine and relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, relieves bronchospasm, and has a stimulant effect on respiration. It stimulates the myocardium and CNS, decreases peripheral resistance and venous pressure, and causes diuresis. It is still not clear how theophylline exerts these effects. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase with a resulting increase in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) occurs, and may play a role. Other proposed mechanisms of action include adenosine receptor antagonism, prostaglandin antagonism, and effects on intracellular calcium. In addition, theophylline may also have an anti-inflammatory effect,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1261-1262   Edition : 37,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • broncodilator property --- ( PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.travolekar.ru/arch/Pdr_for_Herbal_Medicines.pdf,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- CAFFEINE with Increase in Nutrient Level, CAPSCUCIN with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer, MAGNESIUM with Decrease in Nutrient Level, POTASSIUM with Decrease in Nutrient Level, ST JOHNS WORT with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer, SOYA with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand
  • Williamson, E. (2009). Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interaction .. London: Pharmacutical press.
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press
  • Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: Pharmaceutical press.
  • Driver, S. (2009). Stockleys Herbal Medicines Interactions. Royal pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain: Pharmaceutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20, https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf, http://www.otto-wipfel.co.uk/otto/supplements-medication/DRUG-HERB-VITAMINS-INTERACTIONS-A-Z_Guide.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- VITAMIN B6 with Impairs vitamin metabolism., TEA with Xanthine found in tea causes drug toxicity ., COFFEE with Xanthine found in coffee causes drug toxicity ., CHOCOLATE with Xanthine found in chocolate causes drug toxicity .,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Michael, Z. (2007). Hand book of nutrition. New York: Thieme Stuttgart
  • YAHEYA, MOHAMMAD. "DRUG-FOOD INTERACTIONS AND ROLE OF PHARMACIST". Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2.4 (2009): n. pag. Print.
  • YAHEYA, MOHAMMAD. "DRUG-FOOD INTERACTIONS AND ROLE OF PHARMACIST". Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2.4 (2009): n. pag. Print.
  • YAHEYA, MOHAMMAD. "DRUG-FOOD INTERACTIONS AND ROLE OF PHARMACIST". Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2.4 (2009): n. pag. Print.

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.lifestyle-clinic.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/A-Z_Guide.pdf, http://ajpcr.com/Vol2Issue4/226.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1261   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   1 hour,    Max value :-   2 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1261   Edition : 37,