Timolol is a Medicine belongs to Cardiovascular drugs group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1551   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : Nyogel, Tenopt, Arutimol, Chibro-Timoptol, Glucomol, Glucotim, Betimol, Blocadren, Betim

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 5  mg, Tablet with 10  mg, Tablet with 20  mg, Eye Drop with   , Ophthalmic Solution with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 189   Edition : 12, Martindale    Page : 1550   Edition : 37,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, ophthalmic,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1550   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Raised intra-ocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension ophthalmic 0.25 0.5 % Eye Drop b.d.
2 hypertension Oral 10 mg Tablet Dose: Given daily daily, increased according to response at intervals of 7 or more days. Usual maintenance doses are 10 to 40 mg daily, but doses up to 60 mg daily may be required in some patients; doses above 30 mg daily should be given in 2 equally divided doses.
3 Angina pectoris Oral 5 mg Tablet b.d. Dose increased at intervals of 3 or more days by 10 mg daily. Most patients respond to 35 to 45 mg daily in divided doses, but some patients may require up to 60 mg daily.
4 Myocardial infarction Oral 5 mg Tablet b.d. Dose: Given daily for 2 days, starting 7 to 28 days after infarction, and increased subsequently in the absence of any contra- indicating adverse effects, to 10 mg twice daily.
5 Prophylaxis of migraine Oral 10 20 mg Tablet Dose:Given daily.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1550   Edition : 37,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1

Ref :- Book :    Page :    Edition : ,
►  Side Effect : heart failure, heart block, bronchospasm, fatigue, coldness of the extremities, bradycardia, hypotension, shortness of breath, dyspnoea, pneumonitis, pleurisy, headache, Depression, Dizziness, hallucinations, Confusion, amnesia, Sleep disturbances, nightmares, coma, convulsion, paresthesia, arthralgia, myopathies, muscle cramp, Raynaud’s syndrome, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal pain, Hypoglycaemia, Hyperglycaemia, changes in blood concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol, Rashes, pruritus, exacerbation of psoriasis, excess sweating, reversible alopecia, Blurred Vision, conjunctivitis, soreness, nonthrombocytopenic purpura, thrombocytopenia, transient eosinophilia, Systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), dry mouth, raised liver enzymes, male impotence, sclerosing peritonitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1349,1550   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Timolol is with Angiotensin conveting enzyme inhibitors , Calcium Channel Blockers , General anaesthetics , NSAIDS, Antiarrhythmics, Sympathomimetic Drugs , Oral Hypoglycemic Drugs, Barbiturates , ,  Nadolol, Atenolol , Propranolol , Labetalol , Hydralazine , Fluvoxamine, Erythromycin , Cimetidine , Rifampicin , Cholestyramine , Insulin , Epinephrine (adrenaline) , Verapamil , Aldesleukin , Clonidine ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1352,1550   Edition : 37,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Drugs that enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta blockers, such as ACE inhibitors, calcium-channel blockers, and clonidine may be useful in controlling hypertension. Drugs that cause hypotension such as aldesleukin and general anaesthetics also enhance the antihypertensive effects of beta blockers while other drugs, for example NSAIDs, antagonise the antihypertensive effects. Use of beta blockers with other cardiac depressants such as antiarrhythmics and rate-limiting calciumchannel blockers can precipitate bradycardia and heart block; the combination of intravenous verapamil and beta blockers should especially be avoided. Patients taking beta blockers may have an exaggerated hypertensive response to adrenaline, caused by unopposed alpha-mediated vasoconstriction, while the bronchodilator effects are inhibited; the response to adrenaline given for anaphylaxis may also be reduced in patients on long-term treatment with beta blockers. In diabetic patients beta blockers can reduce the response to insulin and oral hypoglycaemics through their effects on pancreatic beta receptors. Drugs that reduce absorption include aluminium salts and bile-acid binding resins such as colestyramine. Metabolism of some beta blockers can be increased by drugs such as barbiturates and rifampicin and decreased with drugs such as cimetidine, erythromycin, fluvoxamine, and hydralazine. Drugs that alter hepatic blood flow also affect metabolism of some beta blockers. For example, cimetidine and hydralazine decrease hepatic blood flow and this contributes to the decreased hepatic clearance seen with these drugs. Drugs that influence hepatic metabolism affect beta blockers that are extensively metabolised, such as labetalol, propranolol, and timolol, while beta blockers that are excreted largely unchanged, for example atenolol and nadolol, are unaffected.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1352,1550   Edition : 37,


►  Contraindication : Bronchospasm, asthma, metabolic acidosis, cardiogenic shock, hypotension, severe peripheral arterial disease, Sinus bradycardia, second or third degree AV block, uncontrolled heart failure, hyperthyroidism, Hypoglycaemia, prinzmetal angina, severity of anaphylactoid reactions, Pregnancy, Phaeochromocytoma should not be given beta blockers without alpha-adrenoceptor blocking therapy as well,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1351,1550   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Timolol is a non-cardioselective beta blocker. It is reported to lack intrinsic sympathomimetic and membrane-stabilising activity,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1550   Edition : 37,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Pilocarpus with Another pathway, Leaf of Pilocarpus with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Anti-Glaucoma --- (kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Mumbai: Nirali Prakashan. )
  • Pilocarpine have Anti-Glaucoma activity --- (Kokate, C. (2013). Pharmacognosy (4th ed.). Pune: Nirali Prakashan. )

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.vitorrentz.in/search/Text+Book+Of+Pharmacognosy, +C.+K.+Kokate, +A.P.+Purohit, +S.B.+Gokhale,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA



    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1550   Edition : 37,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :
      Min value :-   4 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1550   Edition : 37,

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   1 hour,    Max value :-   2 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1550   Edition : 37,