Tolbutamide is a Medicine belongs to sulfonylurea antidiabetic group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 505   Edition : 37  

  ►   Brandname : orabet, Orinase, Orinase Diagnostic
  ►  Strength : Tablet with 500 mg.  Injection with

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 766   Edition : 12   Martindale    Page : 505   Edition : 37  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IV
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 505   Edition : 37  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Type 2 diabetes mellitus Oral 1 2 gm Tablet Dose: Given daily either as a single dose with breakfast or, more usually, in divided doses. Maintenance doses usually range from 0.25 to 2 g daily. Although it is unlikely that the response will be improved by increasing the dose further, daily doses of 3 g have been given
2 Diagnosis of insulinoma as well as other pancreatic disorders including diabetes mellitus IV 1 gm Injection Dose: Given as a 5 % solution usually over 2 to 3 minutes.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 505   Edition : 37  



Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Type 2 diabetes mellitus 12 Year 18 Year Oral 0.5 1.5 gm Tablet

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 505   Edition : 37  
►  Side Effect : Nausea, Vomiting, Heartburn, Anorexia, Diarrhea, Metallic taste, Skin rashes, pruritus, Photosensitivity, Mild hypoglycaemia, Altered liver enzyme values, Hepatitis, Cholestatic jaundice, Leukopenia, Thrombocytopenia, Aplastic anaemia, Agranulocytosis, Haemolytic anaemia, Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Exfoliative dermatitis, Erythema nodosum, Thrombophlebitis with thrombosis has occurred after the intravenous injection, Rapid injection may cause a transient mild pain or sensation of heat in the vein.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 501, 505   Edition : 37.  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Tolbutamide is with Corticosteroids, oral contraceptives, Thiazide Diuretics , , Angiotensin conveting enzyme inhibitors , Alcohol, Salicylates, , , Anticoagulant , FLUOROQUINOLONES , Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Sulfonamides , , TETRACYCLINES , Tricyclic antidepressants, Beta Blockers ,  Epinephrine (adrenaline) , Aminoglutethimide , Chlorpromazine , Diazoxide , Rifamycin, Allopurinol , Azapropazone, Phenylbutazone, Fluconazole , Ketoconazole , Miconazole, Chloramphenicol , Cimetidine , Heparin , Ranitidine , Sulfinpyrazone, Octreotide
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 503, 505   Edition : 37.  


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  A reduced hypoglycaemic effect, possibly requiring an increased dose of sulfonylurea, has been seen or might be expected on theoretical grounds with adrenaline, aminoglutethimide, chlorpromazine, corticosteroids, diazoxide, oral contraceptives, rifamycins, thiazide diuretics, and thyroid hormones. An increased hypoglycaemic effect has occurred or might be expected with ACE inhibitors, alcohol, allopurinol, some analgesics (notably azapropazone, phenylbutazone, and the salicylates), azole antifungals (fluconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole), chloramphenicol, cimetidine, clofibrate and related compounds, coumarin anticoagulants, fluoroquinolones, heparin, MAOIs, ranitidine, sulfinpyrazone, sulfonamides (including co-trimoxazole), tetracyclines, and tricyclic antidepressants. Beta blockers may reduce the efficacy of sulfonylureas by impairing the release of insulin from the pancreas. Octreotide can inhibit sulfonyurea-induced release of insulin from the pancreas; this effect has been exploited in the management of sulfonylurea overdose.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 503, 505   Edition : 37.  


►  Contraindication : type 1 diabetes mellitus, Ketoacidosis, Pregnancy, Renal impairment, Hepatic impairment
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 502, 505   Edition : 37.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Inhibit the β-cell K+/ATP channel at the SUR1 subunit, thereby stimulating insulin release from pancreatic β-cells and increasing circulating insulin to levels sufficient to overcome insulin resistance
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 538   Edition : 3.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- allicin with same pathway.  

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Dose of 250 mg /kg 60 % as effective as Tolbutamide .This study done on rabbit. --- ( Perera, Pathirage. "Functional Herbal Food Ingredients Used In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus". Pharmacogn 6.11 (2012): 37-45. Web. 9 Nov. 2016. )

  •   ►  URL --
  • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3358966/ .

  • DIETARY Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- ANGELICA SINENSIS I.E.DONG GUI with Dietary Substance is Drug Enhancer.  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Williamson, E. (2009). Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interaction .. London: Pharmacutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf


    ContraIndication DIETARY Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID with long term supplementation require some change in dosage of diabes medicine ..  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 505   Edition : 37.  

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   4 hours,    Max value :-   7 hours.  
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 505   Edition : 37.  

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   nf,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book :    Page :    Edition : .