Topiramate is a Medicine belongs to Antiepileptics group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 553   Edition : 37  

  ►   Brandname : Topamac, Topamate, Topamax, Topiragen, Tamate
  ►  Strength : Tablet with 25 mg.  Tablet with 50 mg.  Tablet with 100 mg.  Tablet with 200 mg.  Capsule with 15 mg.  Capsule with 25 mg. 

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 427   Edition : 12  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 552   Edition : 37  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Epilepsy Oral 25 50 mg Tablet Dose: Given at night for 1 week increased thereafter by increments of 25 or 50 mg at intervals of 1 to 2 weeks until the effective dose is reached. Daily doses of more than 25 mg should be taken in 2 divided doses. The usual daily dose for adjunctive therapy is 200 to 400 mg. When used as monotherapy, usual dose range from 100 mg daily to a maximum of 500 mg daily.
2 Prophylaxis of migraine Oral 25 mg Tablet Dose: Given at night for 1 week, increased by 25-mg increment every week, to a usual dose of 50 mg twice daily. If topiramate therapy is to be stopped the daily dose should usually be decreased by 25 to 50 mg at weekly intervals.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 552   Edition : 37  



Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Epilepsy 2 Year Oral 25 mg Tablet o.d.
2 Epilepsy 6 Year Oral 0.5 1 mg/kg Tablet

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 552   Edition : 37  
►  Side Effect : Ataxia, Impaired concentration, Confusion, Dizziness, Fatigue, Paraesthesia, Hypoaesthesia, Drowsiness, Difficulties with memory or cognition, Agitation, Anxiety, Nervousness, Emotional lability, Mood disorders, Abdominal pain, Anorexia, Asthenia, Diplopia, Leucopenia, Nausea, Nystagmus, Insomnia, Psychomotor retardation, Impaired speech, Altered taste, Visual disturbances, Weight loss, The risk of developing renal calculi is increased, especially in predisposed patients. Reduced sweating with hyperthermia has occurred particularly in children.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 551   Edition : 37.  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Topiramate is with Carbamazapine , Phenobarbital , Phenytoin
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 551   Edition : 37.  


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  There are complex interactions between antiepileptics and toxicity may be enhanced without a corresponding increase in antiepileptic activity. Such interactions are very variable and unpredictable and plasma monitoring is often advisable with combination therapy
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 551   Edition : 37.  


►  Contraindication : Hepatic impairment, Renal impairment
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 551   Edition : 37.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Topiramate reduces voltage-gated Na+ currents in cerebellar granule cells and may act on the inactivated state of the channel similar to phenytoin. In addition, topiramate activates a hyperpolarizing K+ current, enhances postsynaptic GABAA-receptor currents, and limits activation of the AMPA-kainate-subtype(s) of glutamate receptor. Topiramate is a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Topiramate inhibits maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures as well as partial and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the kindling model, findings predictive of a broad spectrum of anti-seizure actions clinically
Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 601   Edition : 12.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Gotu Kola with Another pathway.   European peony flower with Another pathway.   Sausage tree i.e.Balam khira with Another pathway.  

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Anticonvulsion effect --- (Duke, J. (2002). Hand Book Of Medicinal Herbs (2nd ed.). United States Of America: CRC Press. )
  • Anti-Epilepsy --- (Kokate, C. & Purohit, A. (2013). Pharmacognosy. Nirali prakashan: Chennai. )
  • European Peony Flowers-Anthocyans have Anti-Epilepsy --- (Pdr For Herbal Medicine. 4th ed. 2016. Print. )

  •   ►  URL --
  • http://freepharmadownloads.blogspot.com/2013/02/pharmacognosy-ckkokate-free-download.html .
  • http://www.travolekar.ru/arch/Pdr_for_Herbal_Medicines.pdf .
  • Duke .
  • J. (2002). Hand Book Of Medicinal Herbs (2nd ed.). United States Of America: CRC Press. .

  • DIETARY Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- CALCIUM with Long-term develop below normal blood levels of calcium , which may be related to drug -induced vitamin -D deficiency. ..  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.otto-wipfel.co.uk/otto/supplements-medication/DRUG-HERB-VITAMINS-INTERACTIONS-A-Z_Guide.pdf


    ContraIndication DIETARY Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal
    Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 601   Edition : 12.  

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   24 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 601   Edition : 12.  

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   2 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 551   Edition : 37.