Tramadol is a Medicine belongs to Analgesic opoids group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 147   Edition : 37      Page :   Edition :    Martindale    Page : 137   Edition : 37  

  ►   Brandname : Contramal, Tramacip, Tramazac, Dromadol, Larapam, Mabron, Ultram, Ultracet, Tramahexal, Tramal, Jutadol, T-long, Tial, Tradol
  ►  Strength : Tablet with 50 mg.  Tablet (Extended Release Tablets) with 100 mg.  Tablet (Extended Release Tablets) with 200 mg.  Tablet (Extended Release Tablets) with 300 mg.  Suppository with .  Injection with .  Capsule with

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 562   Edition : 12   Martindale    Page : 137   Edition : 37  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IV, IM, rectal
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 137   Edition : 37  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Moderate to severe pain Oral 50 100 mg Tablet Dose: Given every 4 to 6 hours. Tramadol hydrochloride may also be given orally as a modified-release preparation once or twice daily. The total oral daily dosage should not exceed 400 mg.
2 Moderate to severe pain IV 50 100 mg Injection Dose: Given over 2 to 3 minutes.
3 Moderate to severe pain IM 50 100 mg Injection Dose: Given over 2 to 3 minutes.
4 Moderate to severe pain IV infusion 50 100 mg Injection Dose: Given over 2 to 3 minutes.
5 Moderate to severe pain rectal 100 mg Suppository Dose: Given up to 4 times daily.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 137   Edition : 37  

Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Severe pain 12 Year

Ref :- Book :    Page :    Edition :   
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Tramadol' drug in  Generalized, Tonic-Clonic Seizures  disease, then Please Not to be given .

►  Side Effect : Nausea, Vomiting, Drowsiness, Confusion, Dry mouth, Dizziness, Sweating, Facial flushing, Headache, Vertigo, Bradycardia, Tachycardia, palpitations, Orthostatic hypotension, Hypothermia, Restlessness, Changes of mood, Decreased libido or potency, Hallucinations, Miosis, Respiratory depression, Constipation, Hypotension, Hypertension
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 106, 136   Edition : 37.  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Tramadol is with Alcohol, Anaesthetics, Anxiolytics, Hypnotics, Tricyclic antidepressants, Antipsychotics, , selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors,  Cyclizine , Carbamazapine
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 107, 136   Edition : 37.  

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  The depressant effects of opioid analgesics are enhanced by other CNS depressants such as alcohol, anaesthetics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, tricyclic antidepressants, and antipsychotics. Cyclizine may counteract the haemodynamic benefits of opioids. The actions of opioids may in turn affect the activities of other drugs. For instance, their gastrointestinal effects may delay absorption as with mexiletine or may be counteractive as with cisapride, metoclopramide, or domperidone. Carbamazepine is reported to diminish the analgesic activity of tramadol by reducing serum concentrations. The risk of seizures is increased if tramadol is used with other drugs that have the potential to lower the seizure threshold. Tramadol inhibits reuptake of noradrenaline and serotonin and enhances serotonin release and there is the possibility that it may interact with other drugs that enhance monoaminergic neurotransmission including lithium, tricyclic antidepressants, and SSRIs; thereby increasing the risk of serotonin syndrome; it should not be given to patients receiving MAOIs or within 14 days of their discontinuation.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 107,136   Edition : 37.  

►  Contraindication : Acute respiratory depression, Obstructive airway disease, Acute alcoholism, Convulsive disorders, Head injury, Risk of paralytic ileus, Hypothyroidism, Adrenocortical insufficiency, Asthma or decreased respiratory reserve, Renal or hepatic impairment, Prostatic hyperplasia, Hypotension, Shock, Inflammatory or obstructive bowel disorders, Myasthenia gravis, Opioid analgesics should be given with great care to infants, especially neonates, Therapy with opioid analgesics should be stopped gradually in patients who may have developed physical dependence, to avoid precipitating withdrawal symptoms, Tramadol should be used with care in patients with ahistory of epilepsy or those susceptible to seizures, Tramadol should not be given to patients who areb suicidal or prone to addiction. it should be used with caution in those who used alcohol in excess, or suffer from emotional disturbance or depression
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 107,136   Edition : 37.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic whose mechanism of action is predominantly based on blockade of serotonin reuptake. Tramadol has also been found to inhibit norepinephrine transporter function. Because it is only partially antagonized by naloxone, it is believed to be only a weak μ-receptor agonist.
Ref :-   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 559   Edition : 12.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product

​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- sassafras albidum i. e.cinnamon wood with Another pathway.   Chickpea with Another pathway.   Chaulmoogra with Another pathway.  

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Naucleamides A have antidepressent effect --- ( Duke, J. (2002). Handbook of Medicinal Herbs (2nd ed.). CRC press: Boca Raton Road New York Washington ,D.C . )
  • Naucleamides -F have antidepressent effect --- (Duke, J. (2002). Handbook of Medicinal Herbs (2nd ed.). CRC press: Boca Raton Road New York Washington ,D.C . )

  •   ►  URL --
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  • DIETARY Substance Interactions

    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA

    ContraIndication DIETARY Substance

    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 137   Edition : 37.  

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   6 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 508   Edition : 12.  

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   2 hours,    Max value :-   3 hours.  
    Ref :-   Book : Goodman    Page : 508   Edition : 12.