Vitamin B12 is a Medicine belongs to Nutritional agent and vitamin group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 2110   Edition : 38,    Page :   Edition : ,

  ►   Brandname : Acmic, Acvit, Adee, Adenomin, Alnacob, Cobalin-H, B-12 Dots, B-12 SL, ,A to Z,Becosule ,Betonin,Felicita,Ferrovit,Pregaba M,Pregaba Plus,Prothiaden M,Gembone,Cobadex,health ok,Meganeuron Plus ,Vitcofol,Wellwoman tablet,Polybion,Ostocalcium,Zincovit

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 50  mcg, Tablet with 100  mcg, Lozenge with 500  mcg, Lozenge with 1000  mcg, Lozenge with 2500  mcg, Lozenge with 5000  mcg, Lozenge with 6000  mcg, Tablet with 250  mcg, Tablet with 500  mcg, Tablet with 1000  mcg, Nasal Spray with 500  mcg, Injection with 1000  mcg/ml, Injection with 5000  mcg/ml, Injection with 2.5  gm, Capsule with   , Oral solution with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 598   Edition : 12, Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 598   Edition : 38, Martindale    Page : 2110   Edition : 38,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IM, IV infusion, SC, intranasal,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 2108   Edition : 38,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Pernicious anaemia and other Megaloblastic anaemia IM 250 1000 Microgram Injection Without neurological involvement, on alternate days for 1 to 2 weeks, then 250 micrograms weekly until the blood count returns to normal.
2 Pernicious anaemia and other Megaloblastic anaemia IM 1000 Microgram Injection neurological involvement, on alternate days and continued for as long as improvement occurs.
3 Prophylaxis of anaemia associated with vitamin B12 deficiency resulting from gastrectomy or malabsorption syndromes hydroxocobalamin IM 1000 Microgram Injection Every 2 or 3 months or cyanocobalamin in doses of 250 to 1000 micrograms intramuscularly each month.
4 Vitamin B12 deficiency Oral 50 150 Microgram Tablet/Capsule Taken daily between meals.
5 Pernicious anaemia s.c/ i.m 100 Microgram Injection Daily for 6 or 7 days, if there is a response, a further 7 doses may be given on alternate days, then every 3 to 4 days for 2 to 3 weeks. For hydroxocobalamin the usual intramuscular dose is 30 micrograms daily for 5 to 10 days.
6 As a dietary supplement Oral 1 25 Microgram Tablet/Capsule Daily.
7 Tobacco amblyopia and Leber’s optic atrophy IM 1000 Microgram Injection Daily, for 2 weeks intramuscularly followed by 1000 micrograms twice weekly for as long as improvement occurs. Thereafter, 1000 micrograms is given every 1 to 3 months.
8 Cyanide toxicity IV 5 gm Injection over 15 minutes. Depending on the severity of the toxicity and the clinical response, a second dose of 5 g may be infused over 15 minutes to 2 hours.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 2108   Edition : 38,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Congenital transcobalamin II Deficiency up to 18 years IM 1 mg Injection
2 Megaloblastic anaemia From 1 month IM 250 1000 Microgram Injection
3 Megaloblastic anaemia From 1 month IM 1000 Microgram Injection
4 Leber's optic atrophy From 1 month IM 1000 Microgram Injection
5 Cyanide poisoning IV infusion 70 mg/kg Injection

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 2108   Edition : 38,
►  Side Effect : Skin reactions such as rash, itching and anaphylaxis, Arrhythmias secondary to hypokalaemia have occurred at the beginning of parenteral treatment, Injection site reactions including pain, erythema, pruritus, induration, swelling and necrosis., Intranasal cyanocobalamin may cause rhinitis, nausea, headache, nasopharyngitis, rhinitis and epistaxis., gastrointestinal disturbance, fever, chill, hot flushes, Dizziness, malaise, acneform, bullous eruptions, tremor, paresthesia, chromaturia, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 2109   Edition : 38, Martindale    Page : 2110   Edition : 38,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Vitamin B12 is with Histamine H2-receptor antagonist, Oral Contraceptive, ,  Neomycin , Omeprazole , Colchicine , Chloramphenicol ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 2110   Edition : 38,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Absorption of vitamin B12 from the gastrointestinal tract may be reduced by neomycin, aminosalicylic acid, histamine H2-antagonists, omeprazole, and colchicine. Serum concentrations may be decreased by use of oral contraceptives. Many of these interactions are unlikely to be of clinical significance but should be taken into account when performing assays for blood concentrations. Parenteral chloramphenicol may attenuate the effect of vitamin B12 in anaemia.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 2110   Edition : 38,


►  Contraindication : should not be used for Leber’s disease or tobacco amblyopia since these optic neuropathies may degenerate further.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 2110   Edition : 38,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Cofactor required for essential enzymatic reactions that form tetra-hydrofolate, convert homocysteine to methionine, and metabolize L-methylmalonyl-CoA,
Ref :-   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 596   Edition : 12,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Meat with same compoundsame compound, Meat with same compoundsame compound, Fish with same compound, Egg with same compound, Milk with same compound,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Nutritional Supplement --- (Gopalan, C. (2012). Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition ,ICMR.: Hyderabad 500007,INDIA. )
  • Nutritional supplement --- (Gopalan, C. (2012). Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition ,ICMR.: Hyderabad 500007,INDIA )
  • Nutritional Supplement --- (Gopalan, C. (2012). Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition ,ICMR.: Hyderabad 500007,INDIA. )
  • Nutritional supplement --- (Gopalan, C. (2012). Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition ,ICMR.: Hyderabad 500007,INDIA )
  • Nutritional Supplement --- (Gopalan, C. (2012). Nutritive value of Indian foods. National Institute of Nutrition ,ICMR.: Hyderabad 500007,INDIA )
  • Nutritional supplement --- ( Swaminathan, M. (2016). Advanced Text-Book On Food & Nutrition vol 2. Bangalore: Wesley press,Mysore and Diocesan press Madras. )
  • Nutritional supplement --- (Swaminathan, M. (2016). Advanced Text-Book On Food & Nutrition vol 2. Bangalore: Wesley press,Mysore and Diocesan press Madras. )

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books/about/Nutritive_Value_of_Indian_Foods.html?id=biFBAAAAYAAJ, https://www.sapnaonline.com/books/advanced-text-book-on-food-nutrition-vol-2-3473,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA



    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- NA

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal, Biliary,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 2110   Edition : 38,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :
      Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   1 ,    Max value :-   2 hours,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 2110   Edition : 38,