Zidovudine is a Medicine belongs to Antiviral group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1027   Edition : 38  

  ►   Brandname : Retrovir, Lazid, Retrovir, Zidovir, Zilion
  ►  Strength : Capsules with 100 mg.  Tablet with 100 mg.  Syrup with 50 mg/5mL.  Tablet with .  Injection with 10 mg/ml. 

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 889   Edition : 12  
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IV infusion
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1024   Edition : 38  

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 HIV infection and AIDS Oral 250 300 mg b.d. Zidovudine may be given by intravenous infusion of solution containing 2 or 4 mg/mL over 1 hours for short-term management of patients unable to take it orally. The dose is 1 or 2 mg/kg every 4 hours (equivalent to an oral dose of 1.5 or 3 mg/kg every 4 hours.
2 prevention of maternal-fetal HIV transmission Oral 100 mg Zidovudine may be given orally to mothers after the fourteenth week of pregnancy until the beginning of labour in a dose of 100 mg five times daily. During labour and delivery, zidovudine is given by intravenous infusion in a dose of 2 mg/kg over 1 hour, then 1 mg/kg per hour until the umbilical cord is clamped.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1024   Edition : 38  



Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 HIV infection 4 kg up to 9 kg Oral 12 mg/kg Oral solution b.d.
2 HIV infection 9 kg 30 kg Oral 9 mg/kg Oral solution b.d.
3 HIV infection 30 kg or more Oral 250 300 mg Oral solution b.d.
4 HIV infection 8 to 14 kg Oral 100 mg Capsule b.d.
5 HIV infection 14 to 21 kg Oral 100 mg Capsule
6 HIV infection Oral 200 mg Capsule
7 HIV infection 22 to 28 kg Oral 200 mg Capsule b.d.
8 HIV infection 28 to 30 kg Oral 200 250 mg Capsule b.d.
9 HIV infection 30 kg or more Oral 250 300 mg Capsule b.d.
10 HIV infection IV infusion 80 160 mg/m2 Injection
11 prevention of maternal-fetal HIV transmission Oral 2 mg/kg
12 prevention of maternal-fetal HIV transmission IV infusion 1.5 mg/kg Injection

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 1024   Edition : 38  
►  Side Effect : Anaemia, leucopenia, Neutropenia, Dizziness, Headache, Malaise, Myalgia, Abdominal pain, Diarrhoea, Nausea, Vomiting, Immune reconstitution syndrome (an inflammatory immune response resulting in clinical deterioration), Accumulation or redistribution of body fat (lipodystrophy) including central obesity, dorsocervical fat enlargement (buffalo hump), peripheral wasting, facial wasting, breast enlargement, and cushingoid appearance, Hypertriglyceridaemia, Hypercholesterolaemia, Insulin resistance, Hyperglycemia, Hyperlactataemia, Abnormal behaviour, Hyperlipasaemia, Hypertonia, Elevated creatine phosphokinase, Myositis
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1024, 1025   Edition : 38.  

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Zidovudine is with , ,  Amphotericin B , Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim (Co-trimoxazole), Dapsone , Doxorubicin, Flucytosine , Ganciclovir , Interferon, Pyrimethamine
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1026   Edition : 38.  


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Care should be taken when using zidovudine with drugs that are myelosuppressive (such as amphotericin B, co-trimoxazole, dapsone, doxorubicin, flucytosine, ganciclovir, interferon, systemic pentamidine, pyrimethamine, and vinca alkaloids) or nephrotoxic. Drugs that undergo glucuronidation may delay the metabolism of zidovudine but few of these appear to produce clinically important increases in zidovudine plasma concentrations. Increased toxicity and decreased antiretroviral activity has been reported when zidovudine is given with some other antiviral drugs, and pharmacokinetic interactions have been reported with a number of anti-infective drugs used commonly in patients with HIV infection.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1026   Edition : 38.  


►  Contraindication : Zidovudine is not recommended in patient with moderate to severe liver disease, It has been recommended that zidovudine should not be used if the neutrophil count or haemoglobin value is abnormally low., Care is also required in the elderly and in patients with reduced renal or hepatic function who may require reductions in dose, Treatment with zidovudine should be stopped if there is a rapid increase in aminotransferase concentrations, progressive hepatomegaly or statosis, or metabolic or lactic acidosis of unknown aetiology., Zidovudine should not be given to neonates with hyperbilirubinaemia severe enough to need treatment other than phototherapy or with markedly increased aminotransferase concentrations.
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1026   Edition : 38.  
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Zidovudine is converted intracellularly in stages to the triphosphate via thymidine kinase and other kinases. This triphosphate halts the DNA synthesis of retroviruses, including HIV, through competitive inhibition of reverse transcriptase and incorporation into viral DNA
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1027   Edition : 38.  

Pathway of DIETARY Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Alpine cranberry with Another pathway.   Bhuiamla with Another pathway.  

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Phyllanthin Niruside have anti viral property --- (Kokate, c. & Purohit, A. (2016). pharmacognosy. nirali prakashan. )
  • Phyllanthin Niruside have anti HIV. --- (PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S. )

  •   ►  URL --
  • http://freepharmadownloads.blogspot.com/2013/02/pharmacognosy-ckkokate-free-download.html .
  • http://www.travolekar.ru/arch/Pdr_for_Herbal_Medicines.pdf .

  • DIETARY Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- NA



    ContraIndication DIETARY Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- PHYLLIUM with Phyllium should not be used within 2 hours of taking medication ..  

      ►  Reference :-
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- http://www.otto-wipfel.co.uk/otto/supplements-medication/DRUG-HERB-VITAMINS-INTERACTIONS-A-Z_Guide.pdf

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Hepatic (Metabolism), Renal
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1027   Edition : 38.  

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   3 hours,    Max value :-   4 hours.  
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1027   Edition : 38.  

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   1 hour,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1027   Edition : 38.