Zolpidem is a Medicine belongs to Anxiolytic Sedatives Hypnotics group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1146   Edition : 37, Martindale    Page : 1146   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : Ambiz,Sove,Zleep,Zoldem,Ambien,Tovalt,Stilnoct,Dormizol, Somidem, Stildem, Bikalm, Stilnox, Zodormdura

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 5  mg, Tablet with 10  mg, Tablet (Extended Release Tablets) with 6.25  mg, Tablet (Extended Release Tablets) with 12.5  mg, Oral spray with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 387   Edition : 12, Martindale    Page : 1145   Edition : 37,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, sublingual,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1145   Edition : 37,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓

Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Short term treatment of insomnia Oral 10 mg Tablet Dose: Taken immediately before retiring. In elderly or debilitated patients, treatment should be limited to a dose of 5 mg at night. Doses should also be reduced in patients with hepatic impairment.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1145   Edition : 37,

Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  

Ref :- Book :
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'Zolpidem' drug in  Generalized, Tonic-Clonic Seizures  disease, then Please Not to be given .

►  Side Effect : drowsiness, Sedation, muscle weakness, ataxia, vertigo, headache, Confusion, Depression, slurred speech, dysarthria, changes in libido, tremor, visual disturbances, urinary retention, urinary incontinence, Gastrointestinal disturbances, changes in salivation, amnesia, paradoxical excitation, raised liver enzyme values, respiratory depression, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1090,1144   Edition : 37,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of Zolpidem is with Alcohol, antidepressants, Sedative antihistamines, Antipsychotics, General anaesthetics , , opioid analgesics,  NA

  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Enhanced sedation or respiratory and cardiovascular depression may occur if diazepam or other benzodiazepines are given with other drugs that have CNS depressant properties; these include alcohol, antidepressants, sedative antihistamines, antipsychotics, general anaesthetics, other hypnotics or sedatives, and opioid analgesics. The metabolism of most banzodiazipines is mediated primarily by the cytochrome P450 system, particularly the isoenzymes CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Hence, adverse effects may also be produce by use with drugs that inhibit or induce or metabolized by these isoenzymes. Benzodiazepines such as diazepam that are metabolised primarily by hepatic microsomal oxidation may be more susceptible to pharmacokinetic changes than those eliminated primarily by glucuronide conjugation. ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1093,1145   Edition : 37,

►  Contraindication : pre-existing CNS depression or coma, respiratory depression, acute pulmonary insufficiency, myasthenia gravis, sleep apnoea, chronic pulmonary insufficiency, It is not appropriate for the treatment of chronic psychosis or for phobic or obsessional states, Caution is required in patients with organic brain changes particularly arteriosclerosis,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1092,1145   Edition : 37,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Weak allosteric agonists of the GABAA receptor that act to increase the frequency of receptor opening and potentiate effects of GABA,
Ref :-   Book : Principle of Pharmacology (The Pathophysiologic Basis of Drug Therapy)    Page : 183   Edition : 3,

Pathway of Dietry Product

​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Sedating properties . --- (Kokate, C. K, A.P. Purohit, and S.B. Gokhale. Pharmacognosy. 1st ed. Mumbai: Nirali Prakashan, 2014. Print. )

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=KwYIsLRyDp4C&pg=SL1-PA102&lpg=SL1-PA102&dq=pharmacognosy+by+kokate&source=bl&ots=8hQsNxkE_6&sig=bmgn5pVpcZq0uZYw-x5pBtypxXs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiqrd6slarQAhVBuo8KHfrSCPYQ6AEIKzAD#v=onepage&q=pharmacognosy%20by%20kokate&f=false,

    Dietry Substance Interactions

    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- CAFFEINE with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor,

      ►  Reference :-
  • YAHEYA, MOHAMMAD and MOHAMMAD ISMAIL. "DRUG-FOOD INTERACTIONS AND ROLE OF PHARMACIST". Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research 2.4 (2009): n. pag. Print.

  •   ►  URL -- http://ajpcr.com/Vol2Issue4/226.pdf,

    ContraIndication Dietry Substance

    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- KAVA KAVA with It may cause excessive drowsiness when taken together ., 5 HTP(5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN) with 5-hydroxytryptophan increase drug induce side effect.,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Kokate, C. K, A.P. Purohit, and S.B. Gokhale. Pharmacognosy. 1st ed. Mumbai: Nirali Prakashan, 2014. Print.
  • Gaby, A. (2006). A–Z Guide to Drug-Herb-Vitamin Interactions. 2nd ed. New York: Three Rivers Press

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=KwYIsLRyDp4C&pg=SL1-PA102&lpg=SL1-PA102&dq=pharmacognosy+by+kokate&source=bl&ots=8hQsNxkE_6&sig=bmgn5pVpcZq0uZYw-x5pBtypxXs&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiqrd6slarQAhVBuo8KHfrSCPYQ6AEIKzAD#v=onepage&q=pharmacognosy%20by%20kokat, http://www.otto-wipfel.co.uk/otto/supplements-medication/DRUG-HERB-VITAMINS-INTERACTIONS-A-Z_Guide.pdf,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Renal, Faecal,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1145   Edition : 37,

    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   2.5 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1145   Edition : 37,

    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   3 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1145   Edition : 37,