morphine is a Medicine belongs to Opoid analgesic group whose information about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 97   Edition : 38, Martindale    Page : 1865   Edition : 38,

  ►   Brandname : Astrmorph, Avinza, Depofur, Marphitoy ,peripride

  ►  Strength : Tablet with 15  mg, Tablet with 30  mg, Capsule with 15  mg, caplets with 30  mg, Oral solution with 10  mg/5mL, Oral solution with 20  mg/5mL, Oral solution with 100  mg/5mL, sustained realease tablet with 15  mg, sustained realease tablet with 30  mg, sustained realease tablet with 60  mg, sustained realease tablet with 100  mg, sustained realease tablet with 200  mg, sustain release capsule with 20  mg, sustain release capsule with 30  mg, sustain release capsule with 50  mg, sustain release capsule with 60  mg, sustain release capsule with 90  mg, sustain release capsule with 100  mg, sustain release capsule with 120  mg, Extended- release capsule with 20/ 0.8  mg, Extended- release capsule with 30/1.2  mg, Extended- release capsule with 50/2  mg, Extended- release capsule with 60/2.4  mg, Extended- release capsule with 80/3.2  mg, Extended- release capsule with 100/4  mg, Injection with 0.5  mg/ml, Injection with 1  mg/ml, Injection with 2  mg/ml, Injection with 4  mg/ml, Injection with 5  mg/ml, Injection with 8  mg/ml, Injection with 10  mg/ml, Injection with 15  mg/ml, Injection with 25  mg/ml, Injection with 50  mg/ml, Suppository with 5  mg, Suppository with 10  mg, Suppository with 20  mg, Suppository with 30  mg, Tincture with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 562   Edition : 12,    Page :    Edition : , Martindale    Page : 97   Edition : 38,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : Oral, IV, IV infusion, IM, SC, Intraspinally, rectal, intrathecal ,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 93   Edition : 38,

Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


Adult Dose

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Pain Oral 5 20 mg Tablet Every 4 hours.
2 Pain rectal 10 30 mg Suppository Every 4 hours.
3 Pain s.c/ i.m 10 mg Injection Every 4 hours but may range from 5 to 20mg.
4 Premedication s.c/ i.m Up to 10 mg Injection 60 to 90 minutes before surgery.
5 Pain slow i.v Up to 15 mg Injection
6 Myocardial infarction IV 5 10 mg Injection At a rate of 2 mg/minute followed by a further 5 to 10 mg if necessary
7 Pain Epidural 5 mg Injection if pain relief is unsatisfactory after one hour, further doses of 1 to 2 mg may be given up to a total dose of 10 mg per 24 hours.
8 Pain intrathecal 0.2 1 mg Injection As a single dose may provide satisfaction pain relief for up to 24 hours.
9 Pain intrathecal 0.2 1 mg infusion As a single dose.
10 Acute pulmonary oedema IV 5 10 mg Injection At a rate of 2mg/minute.
11 Cough associated with terminal lung cancer Oral 5 mg Solution Every 4 hours.

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 93   Edition : 38,




Pediatric Dose

S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage Form   Frequency  Additional Info  
1 Severe pain Neonate SC 100 micrograms/kg Injection q.i.d.
2 Severe pain 1 Month 6 Month SC 100 200 micrograms/kg Injection q.i.d.
3 Severe pain 6 Month 2 Year SC 100 200 micrograms/kg Injection
4 Severe pain 2 Year 12 Year SC 200 micrograms/kg Injection
5 Severe pain 12 Year 18 Year SC 2.5 10 mg Injection
6 Severe pain neonate IV 50 micrograms/kg Injection q.i.d.
7 Severe pain 1 Month 6 Month IV 100 micrograms/kg Injection q.i.d.
8 Severe pain 6 Month 12 Year IV 100 micrograms/kg Injection
9 Severe pain 12 Year 18 Year IV 5 mg
10 Severe pain 1 Month 3 Month Oral/Rectum 50 100 micrograms/kg
11 Severe pain 3 Month 6 Month Oral/Rectum 100 150 micrograms/kg Tablet
12 Severe pain 6 Month 12 Month Oral/Rectum 200 micrograms/kg Tablet
13 Severe pain 1 Year 12 Year Oral/Rectum 200 300 micrograms/kg Tablet
14 Severe pain 12 Year 18 Year Oral/Rectum 5 10 micrograms/kg Tablet
15 Palliative care 1 Month 3 Month SC 10 microgram/kg/hour Injection
16 Palliative care 3 Month 18 Year SC 20 micrograms/kg/hour Injection
17 Neonatal abstinence syndrome Oral 40 micrograms/kg Tablet

Ref :- Book : Martindale    Page : 94   Edition : 38,
Precaution :- If a Patient is using 'morphine' drug in  dhatura   disease, then Please contraindicated with dhatura poisoning drugs .

►  Side Effect : nausea, vomiting, constipation, drowsiness, Confusion, Dizziness, Micturition, ureteric or biliary spasm, sweating, facial flushing, headache, vertigo, bradycardia, tachycardia, palpitations, Orthostatic hypotension, hypothermia, Restlessness, changes of mood, decreased libido, decreased potency, hallucinations, Miosis, Muscle rigidity, respiratory depression, hypotension, circulatory failure, convulsion, rhabdomyolysis, deepening coma, hypoxia, pinpoint pupils, pulmonary oedema, Urticaria, pruritus, flushing, Contact dermatitis, Pain, Irritation, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 93,110   Edition : 38,

►  Drug Interaction : Drug interaction of morphine is with , ,  Mexiletine , Cisapride , Metoclopramide , Domperidone , Ciprofloxacin ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 95   Edition : 38, Martindale    Page : 95, 111   Edition : 38,


  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Morphine sulfate states that patients must not ingest alcohol, including alcohol-containing medicines, at the same time due to the risk of rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of morphine. The actions of opioids may in turn affect the activities of other drugs. For instance, their gastrointestinal effects may delay absorption as with mexiletine or may be counteractive as with cisapride, metoclopramide, or domperidone. Opioid premedicants such as papaveretum have been reported to reduce serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin. ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 95,111   Edition : 38,


►  Contraindication : Acute respiratory depression, Obstructive airway disease, Acute alcoholism, convulsive disorder, Head injury, conditions in which intracranial pressure is raised, Comatose patients, paralytic ileus, Hypothyroidism, adrenocortical insufficiency, asthma, decreased respiratory reserve, renal impairment, hepatic impairment, prostatic hyperplasia, hypotension, shock, inflammatory or obstructive bowel disorders, physically dependent on opioids,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 95,110   Edition : 38,
  ►  Mechanism of Action :   Morphine is an opioid analgesic with agonist activity mainly at μ opioid receptors and perhaps at κ and δ receptors. It acts mainly on the CNS and smooth muscle. Although morphine is mainly a CNS depressant it has some central stimulant actions which result in nausea and vomiting and miosis. Morphine generally increases smooth muscle tone, especially the sphincters of the gastrointestinal and biliary tracts.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 93   Edition : 38,

Pathway of Dietry Product


​   ► Act.Comp / Nutrient / Food / Herb as follows :- Kava with same pathway, Bitter melon with Another pathway,

  ►  Pathway with its reference as follows :-
  • Morphine --- (: kokate, D. & Purohit, A. (2013). pharmacognosy. Abhyudaya pragati: Nirali prakashan. )
  • Exendin 9 have hypoglycemic effect --- (PDR for Herbal medicines. (2000) (4th ed.). U.S. )

  •   ►  URL -- https://www.sapnaonline.com/books/pharmacognosy-ck-kokate-8196396155-9788196396152, http://www.travolekar.ru/arch/Pdr_for_Herbal_Medicines.pdf,


    Dietry Substance Interactions


    ​   ► This Medicine interact with :- ELDER with Dietary Substance is Drug Inhibitor,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Williamson, E. (2009). Stockley's Herbal Medicines Interaction .. London: Pharmacutical press.

  •   ►  URL -- https://www.stonybrookmedicine.edu/sites/default/files/herbal_medicines_interactions-1.pdf,


    ContraIndication Dietry Substance


    ​   ► This Medicine contraindicate with :- MELATONIN with Cause excessive drawsinesss when taken with drug., CANNABIS with Cannabis enhance the effect of morphine ,

      ►  Reference :-
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand.
  • Eldelberg, D. The New Age of nutritional and herbal remedies. New Zealand

  •   ►  URL -- https://books.google.co.in/books?id=WZhj8EO9N3sC&pg=PA49&lpg=PA49&dq=The+New+Age+of+nutritional+and+herbal+remedies.++book&source=bl&ots=UVld-vNZL0&sig=5KwkKUUvW45p0TkfVUCtMZxnbow&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiajLCNocrOAhVMto8KHfD2D-4Q6AEIMDAE#v=onepage&q=The%20,

    ►   Route of Elimination :   Biliary, Faecal, Hepatic (Metabolism), Gut,
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 95   Edition : 38,


    ►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   2 hours,    Max value :-   NA
    Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 95   Edition : 38,


    ►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA