Medicine :   
Nitrous oxide is a Medicine belongs to General anaesthetics group whose properties about Brand can be referenced from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1947   Edition : 37,

  ►   Brandname : Entonox,Equanox

  ►  Doseform : Gas with   ,

Reference of this Medicine for its Strength can be taken from   Book : Martindale    Page : 1947   Edition : 37,
A Route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration.

  ►  Route of administration : inhalation,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1947   Edition : 37,

  ►  Indication/uses : Anaesthesia,
Reference :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1947   Edition : 37,
Dosing of Medicine differ in Adult & Pediatrics ↓


► Nitrous oxide medicine for Adults :

S.No Ailment   Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage   Frequency   Additional Info
1 Anaesthesia inhalation 25 50% v/v Gas Dose: with oxygen is used for analgesia; cylinders containing premixed nitrous oxide 50% v/v and oxygen 50% v/v are available in some countries

Ref :-  Book : Martindale    Page : 1947   Edition : 37,




For Pediatric :
S.No Ailment   Age Min   Age Max   Weight ( Kg ) Route   Dose Min   Dose Max   Unit   Dosage   Additional Info  
1 Anaesthesia

Ref :- Book :    Page :    Edition : ,
►  Side Effect : megaloblastic anaemia, peripheral neuropathy, Depression of white cell formation, involuntary muscle movements, hiccup, coughing, bronchospasm, laryngospasm, respiratory depression, hypotension, mild hypothermia, drowsiness, Postoperative nausea with or without vomiting, anorexia, malaise, fatigue, Dizziness, headache, dry mouth, Jaw pain, muscle pain, Malignant hyperthermia, ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1935,1946   Edition : 37,

►  Interaction : Fentanyl, Epinephrine (adrenaline) , Isoprenaline (Isoproterenol) , , , , , , ,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1935,1947   Edition : 37,


►  Contraindication : pneumothorax, Hypoxic anaesthesia is dangerous and nitrous oxide should always be given with at least 20 to 30% oxygen., In addition to the above precautions, mixtures of equal parts of nitrous oxide and oxygen should not be used for analgesia in patients with head injuries with impairment of consciousness, maxillofacial injuries, decompression sickness, or those heavily sedated.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1946   Edition : 37,
  ►    Mechanism of Drug Drug Interaction :  Use of nitrous oxide with an inhalational anaesthetic accelerates the uptake of the latter from the lungs. This phenomenon is known as the second gas effect. It is due to the disproportionate absorption of nitrous oxide into the blood resulting in an increased alveolar concentration of the second gas. The use of high doses of opioids such as fentanyl with nitrous oxide may result in a drop in heart rate and cardiac output. Sensitisation of the myocardium to beta-adrenergic stimulation occurs with some anaesthetics and ventricular fibrillation may occur if sympathomimetics such as adrenaline and isoprenaline are also used. Enhanced hypotensive effects may result when anaesthetics are given with ACE inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants (which may also increase the risk of arrhythmias), MAOIs antihypertensives, antipsychotics, or beta blockers. The effects of competitive neuromuscular blockers may be increased by inhalational anaesthetics.,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1935,1947   Edition : 37,


  ►  Mechanism of Action :   General anesthetics, mechanism of action remains unknown. In recent years this “unitary theory” of anesthetic action has been supplanted by a more complex picture of molecular targets located at multiple levels of the central nervous system (CNS). Anesthetics affect neurons at various cellular locations, but the primary focus has been on the synapse. A presynaptic action may alter the release of neurotransmitters, whereas a postsynaptic effect may change the frequency or amplitude of impulses exiting the synapse. At the organ level, the effect of anesthetics may result from strengthening inhibition or from diminishing excitation within the CNS. Studies on isolated spinal cord tissue have demonstrated that excitatory transmission is impaired more strongly by anesthetics than inhibitory effects are potentiated. Chloride channels (γ-aminobutyric acid-A [GABA A ] and glycine receptors) and potassium channels (K 2P , possibly K v , and K ATP channels) remain the primary inhibitory ion channels considered legitimate candidates of anesthetic action. Excitatory ion channel targets include those activated by acetylcholine (nicotinic and muscarinic receptors), by excitatory amino acids (amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl- 4-isoxazol-propionic acid [AMPA], kainate, and N -methyl- D - aspartate [NMDA] receptors), or by serotonin (5-HT 2 and 5-HT 3 receptors). ,
Ref :-   Book : Basic & Clinical pharmacology    Page : 429-430   Edition : 12,
 ►   

Dietary Products that produce same effect as  Nitrous oxide




 ►    Nitrous oxide can cause a  'Vitamin B12'  deficiency.
 ►   
 ►   
►   Route of Elimination :   lungs,
Ref :-   Book : Martindale    Page : 1947   Edition : 37,


►    Plasma Half-life :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA


►    Peak Plasma Concentration :   Min value :-   NA    Max value :-   NA